Storyboarding iPad Transitions

Written by: Greg Nudelman

If your clients are not yet asking you to design transitions, they will likely do that on your next project. Transitions are hot, and not just because they entertain the eye. In confined mobile computing interfaces, on tablet devices or in complex virtual environments, transitions are an authentic, minimalist way of enabling way-finding, displaying system state and exposing crucial functionality – in short, they are key in creating a superior user experience.

Transitions as design elements

Since the 1980s, designers have been drawing wireframes to represent web pages and device interfaces.1 In the beginning, wireframes were static schematics that showed a single state of the page. With the emergence of dHTML in the 1990s, it became necessary to draw different states of specific dynamic page elements, so the designers adapted the wireframe methodology to document the beginning and end states of the dynamic elements. Still, designers and engineers had little or no control over what happened in between the beginning and end states — the browser or the operating system handled all transitions.

More recently, sophisticated mobile touch frameworks like iPhone, Android, Palm and Windows Mobile allowed unprecedented control over the speed and structure of the transitions, giving designers more tools with which to create a better experience in a confined mobile space.2 Simultaneously, on the web, dynamic platforms like Flash and Flex gained tremendous ground, making it possible for designers to think about and document transitions because those were now part of the customer experience.

With the release of the Apple iPad, the Age of Transition has come to its full potential. On the iPad, Apple takes full advantage of some of the principles and ideas the company previously explored and perfected using the iPhone. On the bigger iPad screen, transitions achieve a new level of detail and sophistication, making the device come alive, and become a powerful, integral part of the experience.

Transitions Require Thinking Differently

As Jonathan Follett writes in his article “Interfaces That Flow: Transitions as Design Elements”:, 3 many UX designers approach projects from a combination of information architecture and interaction design. These disciplines involve thinking that is quite different from constructing the continuous linear narratives required to design and document transitions. Nevertheless, by borrowing freely from the lessons of early animators, it is quite possible to adopt the existing wireframes methodology to convey the structure and rhythm of a user interface transition.

The task consists of wireframing each of the important changes (or “key frames”) that occur during the transition and stringing a bunch of wireframes together in a storyboard. By documenting the key aspects of the transition, it is possible to share them with the larger team and try out different transitions designs. Documenting the transitions also allows us to step back and consider them in a larger context of a specific use case or overall goal of progressive engagement and immersion.

Understanding iPad Transitions

In order to be able to design and document transitions using storyboards, we have to first understand design principles that designers of transitions use to convey the desired meaning. Let’s take a look at the Apple, Inc. video in Figure 1 showing selected transitions from what is arguably the most popular iPad application today: iTunes. Although many different transitions are shown in the video, we will be specifically looking at the two of them: “opening the iTunes application” (0:17-0:20 min) and “opening album details” (0:30 -0:36 min).

Figure 1: Video of iTunes transitions on the iPad [“View larger version on YouTube”:]

Borrowing from Chet and Guy’s excellent Devoxx presentation “Animation Rules!”:,4 we can identify seven key principles that specifically apply to the animated transitions on the iPad:
# Component Relationship (background-foreground)
# Illusion (motion perception and perceptual constancy)
# Exaggeration (highlighting states, actions, and changes in state)
# Staging (camera view, lighting, focus)
# Acceleration and Deceleration (slow in and out)
# Metaphors (using real-world analogies to convey complex digital events)
# Simplicity (avoiding noise)

To understand how the seven principles above apply combine to make the transition work its magic, let’s do a step-by-step breakdown of the “opening the iTunes application” transition, shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Step-by-step breakdown of the “opening the iTunes application” transition.

Figure 2: Opening iTunes Application Step-by-Step

Using our seven key principles:
Component Relationship (background-foreground)

This transition is essentially the process by which the iTunes application comes into the foreground, while the rest of the apps recede into the background. In the first row, the transition starts out with the home screen and apps icons firmly in the foreground. By the end of the row, we can see that the home screen recedes and darkens, while the iTunes app (represented by a white square) slowly comes into the foreground. By the second row, the background-foreground transition is essentially complete – we can see only the loading iTunes app against the black background.

Illusion (motion perception and perceptual constancy)

This transition creates its magic via an illusion of “flying into” the device, and eventually meeting the white square that represents the iTunes app. To accomplish this, the animation shows us “flying” through the layer of the apps icons on the home screen. The other app icons begin to “fly” to the sides of the screen in a circular pattern, as shown in row 1. The most interesting part of the illusion is the kind of “bait-and-switch”. If you look carefully, you’ll see that the app icons never make it off screen. Just before we “pass through the icons layer” and “witness” the icons “flying off screen”, the background goes completely black, and our attention is focused on the white rectangle. The illusion is complete.

Exaggeration (highlighting states, actions, and changes in state)
In this transition, the lighting effects are used to exaggerate the switch between the background and foreground. In the second row, the background goes completely black, to highlight the change in state. Exaggeration can also be used to warp the shape of an object to emphasize movement, as in is used more in the “genie” effects and transitions.

Staging (camera view, lighting, focus)

Subtle but powerful lighting is used throughout the transition as the primary means for focusing our attention on the foreground of the opening window of the iTunes app through subtle darkening of the background (principle 1). Lighting is also used to accomplish the bait-and-switch in the Illusion principle.

Acceleration and Deceleration (slow in and out)

Our brains know from experience that objects do not start running at top speed or “stop on the dime”. To make the movement more life-like, the animation accelerates into the movement very slowly, picking up pace in later screenshots, as evidenced by the increasing “smudginess” of the icons in the first row. Not surprisingly, the bait-and-switch happens in the fastest moment of the transition to pull of the illusion that the homepage icons actually “fly off screen”. The transition then slows down again in the last row to smoothly fade in the iTunes content elements, deliberately giving the auxiliary page elements and pictures time to “catch up” and making the page load appear smoother.

Metaphors (using real-world analogies to convey complex digital events)

The most effective transitions use real-life elements to provide a frame of reference which makes the animation more realistic. In this case, the icons on the home screen are moving to the sides, creating an overall illusion of moving through space, or deeper “into” the device itself to convey a digital event of opening an application inside the device.

Simplicity (avoiding noise)
The overriding theme of this transition is its apparent simplicity. During the transition, iTunes is not doing anything particularly complicated or earth-shattering. The magic comes not from one particular element, but through carefully blending and combining the lighting and movement to create a smooth cohesive digital dance, perfectly orchestrated from beginning to the end.

Storyboarding iPad Transitions

The key to successfully designing and storyboarding the transitions is understanding and applying the seven animation principles we discussed above. To demonstrate how this can be done, let’s use a slightly more complex transition: the iTunes “opening album details”, shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Opening iTunes Album Details Step-by-Step

Figure 3: Opening iTunes Album Details Step-by-Step

Here again, we see the seven principles at work:
Component Relationship (background-foreground)

This entire transition can be viewed as bringing the selected album cover into the foreground, while the rest of the iTunes application recedes slightly into the background.

Illusion (motion perception and perceptual constancy)

The animation shows us the illusion of the album flying forward on the screen while flipping 180 degrees. The most interesting part of the illusion is the switch from darker gray “back” of the album to a while loading screen (midway through the second row). This sleigh of hand changes the focus to the white cover to make the transition believable.

Exaggeration (highlighting states, actions, and changes in state)

In this transition again, the lighting effects are used to exaggerate the switch between the background and foreground. Midway through the second row the album turns completely white against the slightly darker background.

Staging (camera view, lighting, focus)

In the beginning the iTunes application darkens gradually, and reaches its full saturation about half-way through the second row to create the background against which the album will be staged. The album, on the other hand, switches first from color to darker gray, then to solid white to jump to the foreground.

Acceleration and Deceleration (slow in and out)

The animation starts slowly, and achieves top speed half-way through the second row to quickly switch from the dark gray flipping rectangle to a solid white loading page. Just as in the previously discussed “opening iTunes” transition, this transition also slows down in the last row to smoothly fade in the iTunes album cover content elements.

Metaphors (using real-world analogies to convey complex digital events)

This transition invokes the magical feeling of opening picking the old LP album off the shelf and flipping it over to see the back cover by creating the illusion of the album jumping off the page and flipping 180 degrees horizontally around the middle.

Simplicity (avoiding noise)

While a bit more complex than the “opening iTunes application”, this transition can nevertheless be adequately described by looking at only 12 screenshots.

Once the transition design principles are understood, the process of drawing the storyboard becomes fairly straightforward. I use the same method that Galileo Galilei used four centuries ago when he first diagrammed the step-by-step movement of the sun spots in 1613.5 The basic transition storyboard for the “Opening iTunes Details” transition is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Storyboarding iPad Transitions Using Post-it Notes

Figure 4: Storyboarding iPad Transitions Using Post-it Notes [“See larger version”:/files/banda/storyboarding-ipad/figure4_ipadtransitions_postitnotes_large.png]

Now Start Making Your Own Transitions

As you try your own hand in transition storyboarding, here are a few points to keep in mind:

Use appropriate materials

To diagram transitions, I prefer to use medium-size post-it notes that measure 3-inch square. I draw each of the steps in the transition using a soft retractable pencil with a good eraser. This allows me to quickly diagram portrait and landscape transitions, and everything in between. Because the iPad is a rectangle, not a square, I leave the extra space left on the right of the post-it note (on the bottom for landscape) to write the additional explanation for each step or simply leave it blank.

Simplify shading

As I said above, on the iPad the lighting is foundation to expressing Component Relationship, Exaggeration, and Staging principles, so it makes sense to take a disciplined approach to drawing various shades of light and dark in your storyboard. I find that the easiest approach is to draw shading on top of the picture as light lines at a 45 degree angle. As you can see in the last three post-its, I use tighter line spacing to indicate progressively darker shading.

Get the basics down first

When I first approach the transition design, I make only the post-its necessary to convey the overall movement of the various elements and basic component relationship. I sketch quickly using very rough strokes, and use a ruler and templates whenever possible to make my job easier.

Stick to 6-8 post-its

As you can see in Figure 4, it is not necessary to draw all 12 original key frames we saw in figure 3. To convey the basic structure of a transition, I typically try to use only 6-8 post-it notes. Using fewer steps keeps me focused on the principle of simplicity: if it takes me more than 8 post-it notes to describe the transition, it is probably too complex and I immediately look for unnecessary elements or animation that needs to be eliminated or scaled back.

Ignore Acceleration and Deceleration

Above we spoke at length about the Acceleration and Deceleration principle. This idea is essential to creating effective, believable transitions. However, when drawing a rough storyboard of 6-8 post-its, this is the one principle that I found can be safely ignored. Once people understand this principle, most folks can extrapolate from your rough drawings to imagine the complete smooth transition “in their mind’s eye”. As long as you make it clear to your team that this is only a rough storyboard that the end result will in fact follow the principle, you can safely ignore the subject and concentrate on the relationship, movement and shading of screen elements.

Draw the complete story

Transitions do not happen in isolation – they are an integral part of the overall customer experience. Thus, when I storyboard transitions, I typically do it in the context of the entire use case. This helps me make sure that the particular transition makes sense in the complete context and in combination with other transitions. For example, when I use the “flip” transition to show the search results on the map, and then use the “slide back” transition to go back to the list of search results, the storyboard will quickly reveal the inconsistency in the mental model of the interface I am trying to create and the problem transition will feel awkward when walking through the use entire storyboard.

Sketch a few different transition designs

When I approach a given transition, I usually try out 3-4 different design approaches to see which transition creates the effect I am seeking. Sometimes I find that I need to create 10 or more sets of ideas for more complex and critical interactions. The point of this initial sketching is not to create the complete and final blueprint, but to help you visualize how a given transition design option would feel with the rest of the app interactions. Doing the transition with post-it notes allows me to quickly add a new transition or re-position the existing post-its to create and try out several different scenarios, often while engaging in the active team discussion. I recommend you make copies or take photos of your boards periodically to preserve promising design directions before repositioning the post-it notes and changing the transition layout again.

Obtain Initial Stakeholder Approval

In addition to helping you find the best design approach, a rough storyboard is also a fantastic tool for conveying various design options to your team for joint discussion and brainstorming as well as for obtaining initial stakeholder buy-in. It’s a lot easier to discuss the merits of a particular transition movement and information architecture when everyone is quite literally on the same page looking at your complete use case storyboard.

Creating the Final Transition Blueprint

When you obtain the initial stakeholder approval using your rough storyboard drawing, you will need to document the final storyboard design that the engineers to actually create. Here you have a couple of options.

One approach is to use Flash to create the transition with the final high-fidelity look and feel. This is certainly a valid option. However, I found Flash to be more useful for higher-fidelity usability testing and final stakeholder approval than for describing transitions to engineers. Here is why: most developers do not read Flash code and most transitions are simply too fast for the eye to understand in detail the subtleties of acceleration and shading simply by looking at a running a Flash file. I have had several instances of getting not exactly what I specified or else getting something completely different, only to have the engineers claim that “this is exactly what the Flash looked like”. This is especially a big problem with distributed multi-lingual teams where communication is an issue.

The method that I found to work well is to specify (e.g. create a wireframe for) each of the frames at regular intervals of every 50-100 milliseconds for the entire duration of the transition. Most transitions are between 0.5 – 1.2 seconds, so you will need to create anywhere between 5-24 wireframes in your favorite wireframing tool such as Fireworks, OmniGraffle or Visio. Stringing these frames together in document pages will create a short movie that will comprise the complete blueprint that will describe the position, shading, and movement of each element that will communicate clearly and exactly so the engineers can create the exact transition you envisioned.

While this seems at first like a lot of work, after a bit of practice the wireframing goes fairly quickly, as the difference between the each new page and the one before it is only a slight change in position and shading. As long as we firmly keep in mind the principles by which iPad transitions work, we can easily diagram relevant steps for rich, expressive transitions.

To continue this conversation, add a comment below or reach out to Greg at “@designcaffeine”: or through his website, “”:

Interested in more UX sketching techniques? Join us Saturday, May 28th, 2011 at UX SketchCamp [“”: or “@sketchcamp”: on Twitter] in San Francisco for a chance to learn from the experts, practice UX sketching and share what you know with others.


1. “Wireframing Marathon Starts”:; CIO Happy Hour, September 2010

2. See my article “Designing Mobile Search: Turning Limitations into Opportunities”:; UX Matters, March 2010.

3. Jonathan Follett; “Interfaces That Flow: Transitions as Design Elements”:; UX Matters, July 2007

4. Chet Haase and Romain Guy; “Animation Rules!”:; Devoxx ’09

5. Galileo documented the movement of the sun spots in his triumphant “Istoria e Dimostrazioni Intorno Alle Macchie Solari e Loro Accidenti Rome”: (History and Demonstrations Concerning Sunspots and their Properties); 1613.

Integrating Prototyping Into Your Design Process

Written by: Fred Beecher
Just like with any other UX research or design tool, context plays a critical role in determining how effective prototyping will be for you.

Prototyping is a big deal right now. We get wrapped up in mailing list threads, new tools are released at an astonishing pace, books are being published, and articles show up on Boxes & Arrows. Clients are even asking for prototypes. But here’s the thing… prototyping is not a silver bullet.

There is no one right way to do it.

However, prototyping is a high silver content bullet. When aimed well, a prototype can answer design questions and communicate design ideas. In this article, I talk about the dimensions of prototype fidelity and how you can use them to choose the most effective prototyping method for the questions you need answered.

The dimensions of fidelity

A prototype’s fidelity has the most influence over its effectiveness. Fidelity simply refers to how realistic the prototype is. Most of the time when we talk about a “high-fidelity” prototype we are referring to a prototype that has some visual or industrial design applied to it. But that leaves out what’s most important to UX designers, what it’s like to actually work with the prototype!

Fidelity is multidimensional.

Not only can you have a prototype that looks like a realistic product, but you can also have a prototype that works like a realistic product. I call these dimensions of fidelity “visual fidelity” and “functional fidelity.” By varying your prototyping methodology along these two dimensions you can ensure that your prototyping effort is successful given your particular context. Let’s take a look at some examples.

version w/ arrows

A prototype can be as simple as a series of hand-sketched wireframes that flow together. This is a good example of a low visual fidelity prototype. These wireframes show layout and functionality but have no visual design. Take the same wireframes, integrate a visual design, and your prototype has a high visual fidelity. While you might think of them as being similar, these two prototypes are most effective in two different situations.

That same series of sketches is also a low functional fidelity prototype. Moving through screens drawn on paper is much different than working with the developed system. But if you render those sketches in HTML, JavaScript, & CSS, they have a high functional fidelity. Working with an interactive prototype is very similar to working with the developed system. Again, high- and low-fidelity prototypes are most effective in two completely different situations.

After spending all this time talking about fidelity, I want to share one of my favorite quotes on prototyping. Bill Buxton said this in his Interaction08 keynote:

There is no such thing as high or low fidelity, only appropriate fidelity.

Appropriate Fidelity

“Appropriate fidelity” refers to a level of prototype fidelity that allows you to achieve the goals you’ve set for doing a prototype in the first place. By varying the fidelity of your prototype along the dimensions of visual design and functionality, you make your prototype more effective at achieving some goals and less effective for others.

bottom left Low Visual and Low Functional Fidelity

Very low fidelity prototypes are extremely useful to UX designers. Why? They can be made swiftly, changed without repercussion, and still help visualize a concept. Low visual & functional fidelity prototypes are helpful at answering large structural questions. Here are some examples:

  • Does the system have all the features required to support the user’s goals?
  • Does the workflow make sense at a high level?
  • Which UX concept works best?
  • Coming to consensus on a UX concept with stakeholders, e.g.“Is this what you meant?”

bottom right Low Visual and High Functional Fidelity

In my own practice, this is the type of prototyping I do most often. What I make are interactive, HTML interactive wireframes. Everything is black, white, and gray, but the interactions are extremely close to what they’d be in the developed system. These types of prototypes are effective in many situations:

  • Evaluating the usability of proposed designs for new systems
  • Exploring isolated interactions as a proof-of-concept
  • Validating UX design direction with stakeholders
  • Validating the implementation of requirements with stakeholders
  • Supplementing printed documentation for development teams
  • Performing remote testing

Remote testing has become more and more important over the last several years. At Evantage, we do approximately 75% of our user testing remotely. It would be difficult for us to get good data about our designs for modern, highly interactive sites if we were limited to representing those designs using low-to-medium functional fidelity prototyping techniques such as clickable PDFs or interactive PowerPoint presentations.

By prototyping isolated interactions at a high functional fidelity and testing them with users, I can get really good data about whether that interaction works before I base an application around it…. If those ideas are actually pretty slick, I can release the design with confidence instead of with gritted teeth.

I also want to expand on proof-of-concept testing. This technique supports creativity and innovation. By prototyping isolated interactions at a high functional fidelity and testing them with users, I can get really good data about whether that interaction works before I base an entire application around it. This allows me to explore my crazy ideas and find out if they are, in fact, crazy. But if it turns out that those ideas are actually pretty slick, I’ll know that and can release the design with confidence instead of with gritted teeth.

top left High Visual and Low Functional Fidelity

At first thought, these prototypes may not make much sense. Why bother making something look nice if it doesn’t work? Well, because how something looks can have a huge impact on how easy it is to use. A high visual and low functional fidelity prototype allows you to test that with users. You can print out screen images and do a paper prototype test with them, or you can image map some JPGs and do what I’ve heard termed a “slap and map” test from within a browser.

top right High Visual and High Functional Fidelity

High visual and functional fidelity prototypes are the Rolls-Royce of prototypes. They take more time and effort to build than a lower fidelity prototype and are correspondingly more complicated to manage. Most of the time, this extra cost isn’t worth it. But there are a few situations where it is:

  • Evaluating the usability of proposed UX designs for an existing system
  • Performing usability tests with non-savvy user groups
  • Supplementing printed documentation for offshore development teams

Prototype testing is all about data, right? In the first two situations above, the prototype’s high visual fidelity reduces the confounding factors a wireframey prototype can introduce into test results, thus maintaining the quality of your data. In the third situation, the high visual fidelity helps minimize the design communication and interpretation problems inherent in offshore development.

Integrating Prototyping Into Your Design Process

What I’ve talked about so far has focused on the tactical, on how to prototype effectively to achieve specific goals. What I want to talk about now is more strategic. How can you integrate prototyping effectively into your design process?

First off, do what you’d do to begin any organizational change. Start small. Find a small project, express the value of prototyping and your interest in doing it, and do it. It would be best to start with something richly interactive though, as prototyping is more crucial the more interactive a system is. Of course, make sure you use a prototype of the right visual and functional fidelity for your purpose.

People like shiny things that move. The cool factor of prototyping will be difficult to resist.

As you near completion of the prototype, make sure you walk through the prototype with the project’s stakeholders. Ask them if something like this was what they had in mind. This will impress them on two levels. First, people like to feel important, and you’re soliciting their opinions. Second, people like shiny things that move. The cool factor of prototyping will be difficult to resist. When these stakeholders are involved in future projects, it’s very likely they will actually request a prototype as a result of their first experience with you.

Once you get buy-in, you can start integrating prototyping into your process. But just like different methods of prototyping are more effective for answering certain questions, different business contexts call for different ways to integrate prototyping.

Corporate, Agile, Mature UX Practice

This situation is fast-paced and iterative, but as an employee (as opposed to a contractor or consultant) you have the opportunity to own the UX of your company’s products. In this situation, there are three points in the design process that prototyping can be of benefit.

  • Low visual and functional fidelity prototypes can help select good UX concepts from several that you develop at the beginning of a project.
  • High functional fidelity proof-of-concept prototypes can help develop those concepts into usable designs.

You can work with a dedicated prototyper to build a separate prototype using code that can be reused in the production system to build efficiencies into an Agile process.

Corporate, Waterfall, New UX Practice

In this situation, the organization might not be comfortable enough with UX design to support the development of multiple UX concepts. You might just have to begin developing the wireframes and prototypes to meet the organization’s need for documentation and measurable signs of progress. This situation relies heavily on the prototype for communicating and validating direction with project stakeholders, with user testing often not yet being a real possibility. Here’s how prototyping can help:

  • High functional fidelity prototypes can help you communicate better with stakeholders and get their input on your direction
  • These prototypes should also be used for user testing, if at all possible.
  • Walk through the interactive prototype at the same time you walk through the printed documentation for the developers during handoff.


When doing UX design for an external client, a lot of the magic is worked behind the scenes. The result is a process that is relatively unencumbered by internal politics. The challenge is to convey the importance of iterative prototyping to clients who sometimes feel like they’re paying for the same thing twice.

  • Sketch two or three of your design concepts into simple, low visual and functional fidelity prototypes and test them to decide which to go with. At this stage, testing can be very informal and done with anyone capable of putting themselves in the user’s shoes (e.g., other UX designers, customer service staff, or product managers who used to be users).
  • Build a small interactive prototype that shows the critical interactions, walk through it with stakeholders to validate your direction, then test with users.
  • Revise the prototype based on the test results, flesh it out to support more holistic tasks, and test again.
  • Revise the prototype and use it to supplement the paper documentation as you walk through both with the development team.

Just like with any other UX research or design tool, context plays a critical role in determining how effective prototyping will be for you. If you follow the simple guidelines above and prototype to an appropriate level of fidelity for your context, you will achieve your goals and improve your design. No firearms required.