Getting a Form’s Structure Right

Written by: Jeff Parks

iTunes     Download    Del.icio.us     Pod-safe music generously provided by Sonic Blue

banda_headphones_sm.gif I had the opportunity to speak with Afshan Kirmani on her article, Getting a Form’s Structure Right: Designing Usable Online Email Applications Part 1. We talk about the design of an online web based application. Part 1 of the series focuses on the web based form where the user experience is critical before the user enters the application. The various aspects include a good entry point into a form which determines if users stay or leave. The beginning of every form is most important as details like usability set your apart from your competitors.

We further talk about…

Affordance
Good entry points into a web based form include a clear path for users to move ahead from the path of contact to the actual entry into the form. Afshan goes on to also elaborate on products and services that are compared to create a good lure into the form.

Orientation
Afshan talks about the various aspects of orientation where an interface should determine where you at a particular point in time. Afshan elaborates on the importance of a progress indicator with respect to its placement and usage.

Chunking
Talking about cognitive terminologies like Chunking, Afshan goes on to apply her background to the field of interface design. She emphasizes on the need to group information in a context that is perceivable by end users.

Trust and Online Safety
Trust is a major factor that allows prospects to move ahead and become loyal customers. Talking about elements of trust on a website, Afshan probes into various aspects like security, taking a tour, an overview of what’s to come and language aid.

Wayfinding
With data being bombarded into our lives, the topic of wayfinding seems to become an important discussion for all. Afshan talks about it by providing examples from her everyday life.

User Experience Model (Summary Diagram)
Afshan describes a model that involves the working of a user’s mental model, experience and expectations. When mixed well together, this model leads to a positive user experience of a web based form.

Part 2 of the Article
As mentioned in Part 1, the next part of this article will focus on the designer’s role in the process of creating the form’s structure, layout, segmentation, widgets, color schemes, formatting, alignment, and consistency.

Why We Call Them Participants

Written by: Dana Chisnell

It was not an easy recruit. Directors of IT are busy people. Oddly, they’re hard to get hold of. They don’t answer calls from strangers. They don’t answer ads on web sites. The ones who do answer ads on web sites we had to double-check on by calling their company HR departments to verify they had the titles they said they did.

And now this.

“Hi! So we have some executives coming in tomorrow to observe the test sessions.” This was the researcher phoning. He was pretty pleased that his work was finally getting some attention from management. I would have been, too. But. He continued, “I need you to [oh yeah, the Phrase of Danger] call up the participants and move some of them around. We really want to see the experienced guy and the novice back-to-back because Bob [the head of marketing] can only come at 11:30 and has to leave at 1:00.”

“Sure,” I say, “we can see if the participants can flex. But your sessions are each an hour long. And they’re scheduled at 9:00, 10:30, 12:00, and 2:00. So I’m not quite clear about what you’re asking us to do.”

“I’m telling you to move the sessions,” the researcher says, “so the experienced guy is at 11:30 and the novice is at 12:30. Do whatever else you have to do to make it work.”

“Okay, let me check the availability right now while we’re on the phone,” I say. I pull up the spreadsheet of participant data. I can see that the experienced guy was only available at 9:00 am. “When we talked with Greg, the experienced guy, the only time he could come in was 9:00 am. He’s getting on a plane at 12:30 to go to New York.”

“Find another experienced guy then.” What?!

Five signs that you’re dissing your participants

You shake hands. You pay them. There’s more to respecting participants? These are some of the symptoms of treating user research participants like lab rats:

They seem interchangeable to you.


If you’re just seeing cells in a spreadsheet, consider taking a step back to think about the purpose and goals of your study.

You’re focused on the demographics or psychographics.


If it’s about segmentation, consider that unless you’re running a really large study, you don’t have representative sample, anyway. Loosen up.

Participants are just a way to deliver data.


You’ve become a usability testing factory, and putting participants through the mill is just part of your life as a cog in the company machine.

You don’t think about the effort it takes for a person to show up in your lab.


Taking part in your session is a serious investment. The session is only an hour. But you ask participants to come early. Most do. You might go over time a little bit. Sometimes. It’ll take at least a half hour for the participant to get to you from wherever she’s coming from. It’ll take another half hour for her to get wherever she’s going afterward. That’s actually more than 2 hours all together. Think about that and the price of gas.

You don’t consider that these people are your customers and this is part of their customer experience.

You and your study make another touch point between the customer and the organization that most customers don’t get the honor of experiencing. Don’t you want it to be especially good?

They’re “study participants” not “test subjects.”

Don’t forget that you couldn’t do what you do without interacting with the people who use (or might use) your organization’s products and services. When you meet with them in a field study or bring them into a usability lab, they are doing you a massive favor.

Although you conduct the session, the participant is your partner in exploration, discovery, and validation. That is why we call them “participants” and not “test subjects.” There’s a reason it’s called “usability testing” and not “user testing.” As we so often say in the introductions to our sessions, “We’re not testing you. You’re helping us evaluate the .”

Throw away your screener: Tips on recruiting humans

I’m not kidding. Get rid of your screener and have a friendly chat with your market research people. Tell them you’re not going to recruit to match the market segments anymore. Why not? Because they usually don’t matter for what you’re doing. In a usability test, you focus on behavior and performance, right? So recruit for that.

Focus on behavior, not demographics


Why, if you’re testing a web site for movie buffs, will selecting for household income matter? What you want to know is whether they download movies regularly. That’s all. Visualize what you will be doing in the session, and what you want to learn from participants. This should help you define what you absolutely require.

Limit the number of qualifiers


Think about whether you’re going to compare groups. Are you really going to compare task success between people from different sized companies, or who have multiple rental properties versus only one, or different education levels? You might if you’re doing a summative test, but if most of your studies are formative, then it’s unlikely that selecting for multiple attributes will make a big difference when you’re testing 5 or 6 people in each audience cell.

Ask open-ended questions


Thought you covered everything in the screener, but fakers still got into your study? Asking multiple-choice questions forces people to choose the answer that best fits. And smart people can game the questionnaire to get into the study because they can guess what you’re seeking. Instead, ask open-ended questions: Tell me about the last time you went on a trip. Where did you go? Where did you stay? Who made the arrangements? You’ll learn more than if you ask, Of your last three trips taken domestically, how many times did you stay in a hotel?

Learn from the answers


You get “free” research data when you pay attention to the answers given to open-ended screening questions because now people have volunteered information about their lives, giving you more information about context in which you can make decisions about your study design and the resulting data.

Flex on the mix


If you use an outside recruiting firm, ask to review a list of candidates and their data before anyone gets scheduled. You know the domain better than the recruiters do. You should know who will be in the testing room (besides you). You should make the trade-offs when there’s a question about how closely someone meets the selection criteria.

Remember, we’re all human, even your participants. These steps will help you respect the human who is helping you help your company design better experiences for customers.

Getting a Form’s Structure Right: Designing Usable Online Email Applications

Written by: Afshan Kirmani

I started writing this article with an emphasis on the financial domain. I then realized that I would like to broaden the focus because my findings are also applicable to a general domain like email account registrations, for example. In this article, I would like to take a simple example of how users register for an email account online. For a first timer, is the transition from a real world of letter writing to the online medium easy? And for a frequent user, is he or she motivated enough to create an email account with another service provider?

Yes, this is for all of you out there—my fellow usability practitioners, information architects, designers, managers, project leads, editors, and people who are looking to develop their UX practice.

In the modern family, where often both parents are working full-time and the children are involved in many after-school activities, people may only have a few minutes to spare on an important task during the day. And it’s the Internet that supposedly helps people achieve this. But do we, as designers and usability practitioners, always help them do it? I say, “No.”

Just the other day, a friend of mine begins to complain of the spam mails that she receives everyday. “I have two separate email ID’s to keep myself away from such mails—one for official purposes and the other for my junk emails. But even my official ID seems to be flooded with these emails. So I found myself moving to another email service provider. Again, I found myself grappling with the registration process.”

There are three people who determine success of a web-based form: the usability practitioner, the designer, and the user (Image 1). Taking a simple everyday example like an email service, I aim to discuss the various aspects that lead to a great forms structure.

Image 1: Success of a web-based form requires involvement of a usability practitioner, designer, and user.

There are a million websites out there. There are a million email service providers out there. How do you ensure that you gain the right audience to join your service? What are those factors that will help users move ahead and become your loyal customer? Part of the answer has to do with the first step: REGISTRATION!

In the first part of this series, I will focus on the basic issues that a usability practitioner must address to create a usable web-based form:

  1. Affordance
  2. Orientation
  3. Chunking

1. Affordance: The Lure

We all know how grueling and tedious a registration process can be. Therefore, we need to ensure that our sites adequately “lure” users into the process. To do this successfully is not just a matter of providing the right cues, but how and where we provide them.

Coming from the real world

Every online form was created keeping the real world in mind. We all once began filling in forms in real life before we began moving to the online medium of getting things done quicker.

Email service providers must allow for a smooth transition from a real world scenario to the internet, for those who are petrified of it. Users should know the advantages of the service provided as compared to the real world scenario of letter writing. Why would users move to your service when they can just write a letter? What are the advantages of sending an email? Is it quick? It is easy? These issues should be addressed upfront to ensure that they are lured forward.

None of the websites that I reviewed follow this practice effectively.

Entry points

An entry point to an application must be clear and appropriate to the specific needs of the user. For example, let’s say a user visits a website to send out an email to a distant relative. He or she has never used a web-based email service before. Not knowing that he/she needs to register, they would look for a direct cue to send out an email. Where do you think this user would look for a cue? This is where you need to perform a quick goal-task analysis. Let’s consider a scenario:

A first timer enters the website to send out an email. This user is hauled because he/she is unsure of their next step.

Let’s have a look at Gmail, our most used email provider. Most websites that I reviewed allow you to register. But users are not lured into it. As a first time user of a website, they need to know the benefits of registering clearly, up front. Gmail does a good job of this (Image 2).

Users often hate to register. Therefore, as usability practitioners, we need to tell them of the benefits of registration when they enter a website for the first time.

Image 2: A good example of enticing users to register online by clearly listing the benefits up front.

Service/Product comparison

Remember, your users are watching your competitors as well. So if you aren’t that big in the market, how exactly would you think big? Compare your features with that of your competitors to formulate your strengths over the others in the market. Let’s see how Bluebottle effectively does this (Image 3).

Image 3: Bluebottle’s website allows users to take a peek at service comparisons. Users also have the freedom to view a detailed comparison.

Online benefits

It is important to inform the user up front of what they will gain after registering. It’s a competitive world out there and users must and should know what the website is selling them. This affirms the brand’s identity and responsibility to gain customers online. A basic cue reassuring users about the benefits helps build trust which encourages them to use your services. As shown in image 2, Gmail clearly provides the online benefits.

Another clever way to entice them is to provide a view of what the service looks like once they have registered or applied. In this case, it would be ideal to show users on the homepage a view of what their personal landing page (the inbox) would look like once they have registered.

None of the websites that I reviewed follow this practice rightly.

Security

It is essential that users know that the information they are entering will be secure. A basic “Lock” or “Key” icon would do the trick. Also, providing them with security information and its benefits improves customer loyalty and trust. With the case of Yahoo, the website uniquely utilizes this feature to grab users towards their secure service (Image 4).

Image 4: Providing a security message increases loyalty which moves users towards registering.

Taking a tour

Before users move ahead to encounter a form, it is necessary to tell them why they need to do it and most importantly how they need to do it. Again, taking the same examples forward, if you look at the example below, you will see how AIM Mail allows users to take a tour (Image 5). This also gives an edge to its competitors as they are showing them of what’s inside even before registering.

Image 5: The website allows users to take a tour before registering.

User’s path forward

This doesn’t just end with the benefits. Users have to be told where to go after they have been guided. All websites do provide a way to move ahead. But I specifically want to use an example that can show improvement in terms of placement of this cue, which is most important while users are making a decision.

We love Gmail. But we sometimes wish it were always right.

Provide users with a clear path forward AFTER you are done enticing them with the meat.

Image 6: The website must provide a clear path forward after enticing users with the benefits.

Consistent design

As users transition from the homepage to the form, it is important that the design of the pages remain consistent. Any small change in the design or layout could affect their performance and decrease the overall experience.

Most websites get this right. But we can still look for improvement. Let’s have a look at the example below (Image 7). Here, as users move from the landing page to the form, we see significant changes in the layout and the visual design.

Image 7: The design of the page is inconsistent with the previous page.

An overview of what’s to come

As users enter the application, they need to know what to expect, however short it maybe. Therefore, throwing users directly into a form is not the best way to help them achieve their goals. Instead, the website must first provide users with an overview of what’s to come, including the application requirements and the next steps. This can be just a few lines telling them of the benefits, the things that are expected and an instant access to their emails soon after they are done.

Let’s have a look at Yahoo as an example (Image 8). It doesn’t do a perfect job. But it’s nearly there. All the information that the user is expected to provide during the registration process is described up front.

Image 8: The website informs users of what is expected of them while registering.

Lending a helping hand

We all know that people fumble along the way. Heck, sometimes I come across forms that I don’t understand. Therefore, it is essential to provide users with online help whenever needed.

For applications that drive business, a toll free number is essential as this brings in the revenue. But with the case of an email service provider, online help would suffice.

The visibility and location of the help link is equally important. By providing this, you can ensure that users not only find it quickly but also feel safe just by seeing it. This is also useful for first time users who are just transitioning from the real world of letter writing to the web world of emails.

None of the websites that I reviewed follow this practice successfully.

Language aid

There are websites that allow users to view their services in the language they choose. This should also be the case with web forms. Choosing the language of their choice gives them freedom and control. It also helps them move forward and register as they can be assured that the website caters to their needs as well.

Image 9: The website provides a way for users to set their language preferences.

Save and continue

Let’s say that the basic goal is to register online, so why not just save users’ information automatically as they proceed? A basic “Save and Continue” button would not only tell users that their information is automatically saved but it would also allow them to access the information if they need to resume the application later.

Now if your form is just a page long, you would obviously need a button that reads “submit” or “done”.

Most websites only follow the later.

2. Orientation

Form title

Ensuring that the page header follows a clear task flow from the preceding cue helps applicants orient themselves to the page. Most websites do this successfully. Let’s take a look at the example below (Image 10). Gmail follows a clear flow from one page to another, telling the users where they are at each specific point in time.

 

Image 10: The website provides a clear orientation feedback to the users as they move from one page to another.

Progress indicator

How ever short or long your application form maybe, users need to know their path ahead. A well-positioned progress indicator outlining the entire application process helps users see what lies ahead of them. There’s no use of providing the progress indicator on the left or the right of the form. Users need it up front as they do not tend to look to the left or the right of the form when they are entering information into an application. The best way to grab the user’s attention is to display the progress indicator on the top of every page of the application.

Let’s have a look at an example below (Image 11). This website has got the concept right. Yet, it can further deliver what’s best for users at this point. If you are providing users with a form, make sure that you tell them what each step entails. For example, Step 1: Enter your personal details. The example below does provide a progress indicator by telling users of the number of steps ahead. Yet, it fails to mention the step details.

Image 11: An example of a progress indicator. Though, the website needs to take a further step to provide the step details.

Progress feedback

More than 60% of web-based forms that I’ve encountered add in extra steps along the way, ones not included in the progress indicator. As applicants do not see all the steps up front, they are baffled when additional steps start appearing. When you tell users that the form entails 3 steps, don’t cheat them. Keep it to 3 however tempted you might be. With the example above (Image 11), users are probed into a number of pages, viewing the same orientation feedback for pages to come. Make sure that each step is provided on the same page. Moving them through pages and providing them with the same orientation feedback is only going to cause confusion.

3. Chunking

People perceive information more easily when related parts are grouped. This increases users’ efficiency and reduces reading effort. Chunking information into related parts helps users better understand information to navigate more effectively.

Headers

Ensure that you break the form into logical content groups and provide relevant headers for each information chunk. I have seen more than 90% of web forms that just provide the main header and then continue with about 20 questions on the same page. This can overwhelm a user. A quick way to organize information into groups would be to do a card sort with potential users of the application or even your co-workers. An example of effective chunking is found at Yahoo and My Way (Image 12 and 13).

A clever trick is to number the chunks to allow users to perceive how much is left and also to perceive that they are moving forward. It provides clear direction of a way forward.

Image 12: The form is well-chunked, with clear headers describing the grouped content.

Image 13: The form is well-chunked, with clear headers describing the grouped content.

Labels

Labels on individual pages within the application process must be related to the main header as well as its elements. For example, forms should display a clear and simple header along with related sub-headers. In the example above (Image 12 and 13), the sub-headers (labels) are clearly grouped with their header. You have personal information and password information separated with clear headers that define the structure. This provides clarity and direction.

Summary

As usability practitioners, we need to first and foremost understand the user’s intentions and expectations, in order to provide an online experience that accommodates them. The image below (Image 14) shows the mapping between the user’s intentions and expectations and the ways in which the usability practitioner can help accommodate them in order to ensure the ultimate success of online application forms.

 

Image 14: The usability practitioner ensures that the form’s structure accommodates the user’s mental model, experience, and expectations.

The journey of creating a successful online application form requires three people working in parallel: the usability practitioner, the designer, and the user. The usability practitioner needs to keep in mind the big picture. The designer needs to have a clear understanding of all the details that will go into the form’s structure. The user helps shape the overall approach to the application form and ensures its ultimate success.

You might agree, partially agree, or even disagree with my thoughts. You might even have something to add to this. Let’s hear your point of view. We are innovating, remember?

Coming up…

The next part of this article will focus on the designer’s role in the process of creating the form’s structure, layout, segmentation, widgets, color schemes, formatting, alignment, and consistency.


References

  • “GUI Design for Dummies” by Laura Arlov, 1997
  • “GUI Bloopers: Don’ts and Do’s for Software Developers and Web Designers” by Jeff Johnson, 2000

 

Comics for Consumer Communication

Written by: Rahel Anne Bailie

The rising popularity of the comic as an internal communication device for designers has increased our ability to engage our stakeholders as we build interfaces. Yet, social service agencies looking to provide services to hard-to-reach groups like immigrants, cultural minorities, and the poor have taken pride in innovative outreach methods. In situations where traditional printed matter is a barrier, graphical methods can be used very effectively to communicate with audiences.

From guerilla theatre to testimonials, posters to graphic instructions, users have benefited from alternative communication methods, particularly in situations where education or cultural barriers make it difficult for people to access services important to their well-being and safety. In some cases, the comic book format has been used as a way to help people get access to critical legal help. This case study from my time as a Publication Manager at the Legal Services Society (LSS) of British Columbia (BC) could inspire the use of comics outside the development process.

The Situation

BC has over 253 First Nations tribes (known as “Native Americans” in the United States), which is about one-third of all First Nations in Canada. Seven of Canada’s eleven unique native language families are located exclusively in BC. When BC joined Confederation (Canada) in 1871, the provincial policy of the day did not recognize aboriginal title to the land, so no treaties were signed with the First Nations unlike in other provinces.

Instead, the federal government made it a criminal offence for a First Nation to hire a lawyer to pursue land claims settlements, and removed a generation of children to residential schools, where many were abused and traumatized. As a result, many tribes were left in an ongoing state of economical and social upheaval, with rampant unemployment, social problems, and poverty.

The Legal Services Society (LSS) in BC is the provincial agency that provides legal aid to poor and marginalized residents of the province. Prior to the crippling budget cuts the government imposed in the late 1990s, LSS also provided public legal education material to people who didn’t quite qualify for legal aid but certainly needed it. They may not have been quite poor enough, or they were poor enough, but legal aid didn’t cover their particular problem.

LSS knew that solving some of the smaller problems up front would keep them from escalating into larger problems – problems that would then qualify them for legal aid, but also would be devastating for their lives.

In 1995, the LSS asked its Publishing Program, where I was the manager, to collaborate with them on some self-help material for First Nations women. The Native Services Department wanted to help these women understand their rights in the area of family law, specifically around the issue of spousal violence. Based on the number of women who came to social service agencies for help, LSS recognized that there were a number of issues that were not well understood and, if caught early, could be addressed to prevent larger legal problems.

The agency decided that it was within its mandate to produce a publication for this population segment, and the two departments began the process of creating the publication that would eventually be called Getting Out: Escaping Family Violence.

Why the Comics Format?

LSS produced all publications collaboratively. In this case, the two departments explored different formats, and ultimately chose the comic form. Comics’ graphical format could draw low-literacy women to pick up information off a publication rack. LSS had previously done one other publication in comic book format, which had worked for that audience.

The issue of family violence was a sensitive one, and the LSS had to be sure that the audience would not consider the graphical format of the publication condescending. To take the pulse of those who would use the publication, we conducted several focus groups in places where women would gather for learning (e.g. literacy, friendship, and women’s centers).

We used an approach that combined outreach, usability testing, literacy skills improvement, immigration intake, and legal education. We’d bring food and beverages, humbly ask questions, and be the learners instead of the teachers. Particularly with an all-women’s group, it was important to do something based around food. Participants would often bring their children, and they would ask us questions and giggle over our perspectives.

For this publication, a comic book format seemed to be a natural. The literacy levels in First Nations communities have been cited as being significantly lower than the general population, particularly in rural areas. Conveying the nuances of family law to a low-literacy population segment was one challenge; another was understanding specific cultural references that could be missed or become “localization” barriers.

Considerations similar to those for producing publications in different languages apply to those being translated from “majority culture English” to “minority culture English,” or same-language localization, so to speak. There may not be a language difference, strictly speaking, but significant dialectic differences apply, graphics are very culturally-specific, and emphasis differs between cultures. In this instance, we had to localize our content to make it relevant to our First Nations audience and not concern ourselves about whether the publication resonated with other people sitting in a legal aid waiting room.

Elements of Development

The commitment of the LSS to create effective material for our users extended to all aspects of the publication process.

The publication process included iterations of oversight, content creation, production, and user input.

Authoring–The content creation was undertaken by seeking out a subject matter expert in the topic area, usually a lawyer or case worker in one of the field offices. The author gathered profiles, based on cases from offices around the province, and distilled the important legal information that went into the publication. For this publication, I hired a television screenwriter named “Candis Callison”:http://www.cwy-jcm.org/en/aboutus/board/callison who was from the Tahltan band of First Nations to provide an authentic voice for the comic book.

Editorial–The editorial process was done in-house. For this project, the process included editing the script to fit the comic book genre. I also worked with the artist to ensure that the number of panels would fit the booklet format, and the dialog would fit the panels. Once the substantial edit was done, in-house staff did the copy edit. Then the Native Services lawyer, also First Nations, reviewed the publication for legal accuracy.

Production–As positions opened in the department, I was able to hire more culturally and ethnically diverse employees so that, eventually, we were able to produce and proofread material for diverse cultures and languages. (We produced material for recent immigrants, as well, in Chinese, Farsi, Spanish, Punjabi, and Vietnamese.) The new staffed helped greatly during the back-translation, where a publication is translated back into English to ensure translation integrity. In this case, the back-translation was not for language, but to ensure that cultural references were effective.

Art, A Critical Element

An LSS employee was friends with a budding artist named “Brian Jungen”:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Jungen who was of Dunne-za (a First Nations tribe) and Swiss background. His artwork provided authentic visuals for the initial book. His work now hangs in the Vancouver Art Gallery, amongst other places, and I like to think he looks back fondly on the project.

How The Book Came About

The structure of the book took shape as the artist and I divided the script into chunks to fit the drawings, and then the drawings as necessary. As the Publishing Program manager, I took on the role of substantive editor for the writing and graphics. I also worked with the artist to figure out how to get exactly enough panels to fit the amount of print space allotted.

The structure of the book needed to be in multiples of four pages — minus both covers, the copyright page, and the title pages — and couldn’t exceed 8 pages of actual panels, to control costs. The story had to stay coherent within these constraints and couldn’t focus on the local color at the expense of delivering the legal message. All of that took quite a bit of balancing to keep the interest, use the right level of language, and keep the key legal phrases that would be important for someone to know. In the end, it worked.

Much like any other localized material, we had the material checked by a lawyer to ensure that no legal concepts were compromised during the “translation,” and then the material was tested with audiences to determine effectiveness. The Native Services Department fieldworker took copies of the storyboards out on a road trip to band offices and friendship centers.

We held our breath until word came back through the “moccasin grapevine” that the results were well received. This feedback loop was critical because it provided the opportunity to incorporate any changes that came up from the test.

In the End…

The publication story line opens with a guy in a plaid shirt (it has to be a plaid shirt) having an altercation with his wife. Then they’re at a pow-wow in a truck (it has to be a pick-up truck) where she warmly greets an old (male) friend. Then they’re at a party where he’s being abusive to his wife. By the end of the publication, the wife has identified that his verbal and physical violence is not acceptable, gotten a restraining order by following a few simple steps, and taken some basic legal steps without incurring huge legal costs.

click for cover detail of Getting OutClick for panel detail of Getting Out

One of the dialog bubbles states “… If he tries to do any of these things, we will arrest him again for breach of bail,” and then explains what the term “breach of bail” means. Another panel explains that, “If you live in a rural community far from the cities, Crown counsel [a prosecuting attorney] travels from community to community. You may have a different lawyer at the trial.”

The “insider” cultural perspectives made me feel a bit of a voyeur, but that very characteristic was what made it so effective. The 8.5” x 11” saddle-stitched booklet was immediately identifiable on the publication rack by its distinctive graphics. Also, the title, Getting Out, reflected the vernacular used by women in the community caught in situations of domestic violence so it was an instantly recognizable phrase.

The agency ran a modest print run of the publication, partly to contain printing costs in case of waste, and partly to gauge reaction to the publication. The booklets were distributed to legal aid offices, band offices, and other social service agencies where women were likely to go when they found themselves in marital distress. Offices and agencies were notified of its availability, and I mentioned it in passing during a radio interview.

The demand for the publication soon depleted the initial print run, and another was requested. The frontline workers liked the format, and handed it out to the women who didn’t quite qualify for legal aid but who clearly wouldn’t be able to afford a lawyer. Gathering post-production metrics was not a strong point at LSS, but by the measure of popular opinion, it was a winner, and the exercise was repeated with a companion publication entitled The Ministry Took My Kids, about parental rights when children are apprehended by social services.

Click for cover detail of The Ministry Took My KidsClick for panel detail of Getting Out

UX Design-Planning Not One-man Show

Written by: Holger Maassen

A lot of confusion and misunderstanding surrounds the term "user experience." The multitude of acitivities that can be labeled with these two words span a vast spectrum of people, skills and situations. If you ask for UX design (UXD), what exactly are you asking for? Similary, if someone tells you they are going to provide you with UXD for an application, website or intranet or extranet, what exactly are you going to get?

Is it just one person who is responsible or is it a team of people who are in charge of UXD? In this story I´ll sketch my ideas of UXD based on my experiences and at the end of this story I will give you my answer.

Let us start at the beginning – UXD starts with experience – experience of the users. And so I will talk about the users first.

 

 

UXD-P – every person is an individual

Every person is an individual. Every person is in possession of different roles. For each individual there will be many roles and each person adopts a different role depending on the circumstances.

roles of experiences

User Roles

Sometimes the individual person holds one role, but mainly he will hold quite a few roles like consumer, customer, user, client, investor, producer, creator, participant, partner, part of a community, member, and so on.

 

 

UXD-P – network of expectations, experiences and knowledge

Every user is multi-faceted – and is considerably more complex than they themselves can imagine – so it´s not very helpful just to talk to the user or ask him what he needs. We have to watch what people do; we have to listen to what people say and to recognize what decisions people make – and by observing we have to evaluate and understand why they do this and that. Why and what kind of visual elements will the user like, prefer and or understand? Why and what kind of mental model, navigation or function do they respond to?

Jakob Nielsen said “To design an easy-to-use interface, pay attention to what users do, not only what they say. Self-reported claims are unreliable, as are user speculations about future behaviour.” (Jakob Nielsen – Alertbox) and I agree – I think no statement can be objective. Perhaps the circumstances are not realistic or not reasonable for the person. Or maybe the person himself is not really in the “situation,” or he is being influenced by other factors (trying to please the tester for example). Or maybe he is trying to succeed with the test rather than trying and failing, which tells us so much more.

When all three perspectives (do, say, make) are explored together, we are able to realize the experience spectrum of the “normal” user/customer we are working for.

Jesse James Garrett said: “User experience is not about how a product works on the inside. User experience is about how it works on the outside, where a person comes into contact with it and has to work with it” (J.J.Garrett – The Elements of User Experience) .

areas of experiences

Experiences

Areas of experiences: different areas which effect the quality of communication

 

 

UXD-P – personal and individual

When we talk about experiences, we take the individual into consideration, including the subjective occurrences felt by the person who has the “confrontation” with what we want them to use. Experiences are momentary and brief – sometimes they are part of a multi-layered process or they are on their own.

Normally such know-how has been learned as a part of something or by itself and will be remembered in the same way – but that’s not always the case – and the person deals with the situation in a different way. If we look at their exeperience as a continuum, the user brings their experiences of the past to the interaction in the present and adds their hopes for the future. That future could be: to interact with their banking in a safe and secure way.

flow of experiences

Flow of Experience

Flow of experience: the individual user/customer is always in the present – they act in the present. They are influenced by former experiences and current expectations.

UXD-P is taking the users’ views, behavior, and interactions, to figure out the emotional relationship between them and the thing we have built. For the most part these "people" and their experiences are unknown. It requires an appreciation of the customer: their journey, their personal history and their experiences.

It is the collective set of experiences, in the online-world, the offline-world, or even tiny little things (i.e. My coffee was cold this morning) that affects their experience of the products and the companies that represent them. It is about appreciating the individual user’s unmet needs, wants, capabilities and desires in a contextual way. It´s a box of experiences including the things the user saw, acted and felt. (BBC Two [12th February 2008, 9pm, BBC Two] had a program on rational thought. Highlights of the program include: Loss complex, Post-decision rationalization, Priming, Precognition. Watch highlights from the programme : http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/horizon/broadband/tx/decisions/highlights/ )

Experiences and expectations meet in the present. Both are inseperably combined, and every action we take takes both parts into consideration. When a person uses an application, he tries to understand what happens. He will always try to reference this to his past experiences. The moment is also tightly coupled to his expectations of his personal outlook.

At this point of “present” I think of the UX honeycomb of Peter Morville [1] …

honeycromb – Peter Morville

Morville’s "honeycomb"

honeycomb – Peter Morville (P.Morville – Facets of the User Experience)

In the present we have to deliver to the individual user and his specific task the best answers to following questions.

  • Is the application useful for the individual user and his specific task?
  • Is the application usable for the individual user and his specific task?
  • Is the application desirable for the individual user and his specific task?
  • Is the application valuable for the individual user and his specific task?
  • Is the application accessible? Available to every individual user, regardless of disability?
  • Is the target findable for the individual user and his specific task?
  • Is the application credible for the individual user and his specific task?

In the UXD-P the whole team has to take the users’ views of the GUI and the interactions to figure out the emotional relationship between the brand and potential customers. It requires a common appreciation of the customer journey and their personal history: not only with the product and similar products, but also with similar experiences.

 

 

UXD-P – teamwork and cooperation

The first stage in discovering – to invent or design for the experience – is to take a new viewpoint about the people who buy and use the products and services we are designing. This is a birdseye view and from step to step we have to use the "mouseview," which is to say a detailed view from the user’s perspective, as we develop the application we have to switch between these views. Our main desire is to to respect, value, and understand the continuum of experience and expectations our users have .

UXD-P can sometimes be a slippery term. With all the other often used terms that float around: interaction design, information architecture, human computer interaction, human factors engineering, usefulness, utility, usability and user interface design. People often end up asking, “What is the difference between all these fields and which one do I need?” If the UXD is aimed to describe the user’s satisfaction, joy or success with an application, product or website, however we specify it, there are a few key essentials which need to be tackled and I have to point out the UX honeycomb of Peter Morville [1] a second time. Each of these points, as enlightened above, makes up a considerable component of the user experience. Each is made effective due to the design offerings from each of the following elements:

Usefulness is based upon utility and usability. This means the product is able to give exactly the right kind of service and what the user is expecting from it. And it´s the joy of reaching my aims and the joy of doing so easily. The information architecture is in charge of clarity of the information and features, lack of confusion, a short learning curve and the joy of finding. The designing of the interaction is essential for a successful and overall satisfying experience. So the interaction design has to answer the questions of workflow, logic, clarity, and simplicity of the information. Visual design is responsible for the clarity of the information and elements, simplicity of tools and features, pleasant or interesting appearance of the interface, the visual hierarchy, and the joy of look and feel. Accessibility is a common term used to describe how easy it is for people to use applications or other objects. It is not to be mixed up with usability which is used to describe how easily an application, tool or object can be used by any type of user. One meaning of accessibility specifically focuses on people with disabilities: physical, psychological, learning, among others. Even though accessibility is not an element of its own, it is important to notice that accessibility also plays a role on the whole user experience to increase the likelihood of a wide-ranging user experience. People tend to gravitate to something that is easier to use regardless of who it might have been designed for.

The UXD innovation process is a nonlinear spiral of divergent and convergent activities that may repeat over time. Any design process begins with a vision. This applies particularly to the UX process. A vision, however, is not enough to start design. As I mentioned before, we always have different circumstances, users and roles. Therefore, it is critical to accurately understand the end user’s needs and requirements – his whole experience and expectations. The UX process relies on iterative user research to understand users and their needs. The most common failure point in UX processes is transferring the perspective of users to UI design. The key is to define interaction first, without designing it. First, all the research (the user, product and environment) have to be organized and summarized in a user research composition. These lead to user profiles, work activities, and requirements for the users. The user research composition feeds directly into use cases. The use cases show steps to accomplish task goals and the content needed to perform interactions. Completed use cases are validated with the intended user population. This is a checkpoint to see if the vision is being achieved and the value is clear to users and the project team. The next step is to design the user interface, generating directly from the interaction definition. A primary concern with design is to not get locked into a single solution too early. To keep the project on time, this step should be split into two parts: rough layout and exact and detailed design. The rough layout allows experimentation and rapid evaluation. Detailed design provides exacting design and behavior previews of the final application that specify what is to be coded. Iterative user evaluations at both stages are connected to be fast and effective in improving GUI, design feedback, rapid iterative evaluations, and usability evaluations.

UX workflow cycle

Image_7

design workflow – workcycle – workspiral

 


 

 

UXD-P – Gathering the elements

The diagram below presents the relationship of the elements above:

elements of UXD-P

Elements of UXD-P


Lewin’s equation

Lewin’s Equation, B = f (P,E) ( B – Behaviour; f – Function; P – Person; E – Environment ), …

… is a psychological equation of behaviour developed by Kurt Lewin. It states that behaviour is a function of the person and his or her environment [2].
There is a desired behaviour that we need to encourage, but we have no control over the person, so via interaction design, information architecture and interface design we control the environment and therefore generate the desired behavior. (see reference: books.google.com ).

 

 

UXD-P – many steps to go but every step is worth it

How do we involve our team, customer and our user/consumer? We can start at different points, but I like to think about the circumstances first. Where do we come from? Where are we? Where will we go? And who is “we”? “We” means each person who is involved in the project. Iin the centre of each effort stands the user. To get the user with his personal experiences and expectations into the project, the design team and the customer needs a combining glue / tool / instrument. I believe these are the personas of the “target users/consumers” in the process of UXD-P. If there are no personas the second or third choice are scenarios or the workflows (based on a certain user/person).

The management point of view for the most cases is also the view of our customer. It includes the user’s/consumer’s age, income, gender and other demographics. The perspective of UXD-P is to look at behaviour, goals and attitude.

To get a realistic persona we have to identify first of all the target users. Out of my experiences this is not only the task of our client to define the users and consumers – we have to support him. During the identification and characterization we have to go beyond demographics and try to understand what drives individual users and consumers to do what they do and these as detailed in quantity and quality as necessary and possible – like I mentioned above. The approach and the complexity of the characterization depend on the tasks, project and functionalities. Parallel to the very personal description we need a “picture” of the environment. For each persona we must define their business and/or their private concerns and aims. Do they want to research a product for purchase later? Are they concerned about not wasting time primarily? Do they just want to purchase something online as easy and quick as possible?

Depending on these personas we can formulate, discuss and prove scenarios – from the very beginning of the project, during the project and as check or analysis at the end of the project.

 

 

 

 

 

UXD-P – my blueprint of schedule – "todos" and deliverables

We are always asking and being asked: what are the deliverables. Throughout my career as an IA, UX-planner and designer, as well as during my study of architecture and town planning, I have constantly asked myself following the questions:

  • What kind of project is it? What are the key points?
  • What should our steps and milestones be in the project?
  • What should our/my deliverables be?
  • How can we/I explain the main idea?

I have realized that if I do not answer these questions previous to creating a deliverable, I waste more time and deadlines slip.

The deliverables are not for us. The deliverables are a means of communication with several people: manager, decision maker, client, designer, front-end developers, back-end developers, etc. Sometimes I have the feeling we overlook this from time to time. After I think about the project I have to ask myself, where will my deliverables and other efforts fit within the process of design? The following diagram describes different lines of work that will lead us to some questions each line must accomplish. Depending on these questions and topics I will outline the basis, basics and deliverables for which each skill and ability which is necessary.

Image_6___schedule of UXD-P_small version

Image_6

schedule of UXD-P ___ better view – schedule 1238px x 1030px

 

UXD-P – my conclusion

I studied architecture and town planning. And just like town planning and architecture isn’t just for architects and art lovers, the internet isn’t just for computer users and developers. Similarly, just as the towns and the cities are for the inhabitants and architecture is for the users of a building, so products and applications are for the user, the customer, the member and not for the people who build them.

In every kind of process we should act in a team but in the process of UXD-P it is absolutely essential that we have to think parallel, with the same focus . We have to act in a team, although every team member is a kind of lawyer: lawyer of budget, of the client, of utility, of usability, of look and feel, of brand and finally of the user himself. Because at the end of the project, our user/customer is the final judge.

Good design is not only interface, or look and feel, or technology, or hardware, or how it works. It is every detail, like the structure, the labelling, the border of a button or a little icon. Finally, it is the sum of every element. I believe that a shared vision of a group of creators will have more potential than individual creativity. And that is the point where creativity meets expectation. The point of view on IA and design and the process to get to a well-designed product will be changed by UXD-P.

The persons who use the application or other object that we invent are the real “architects” of the “architecture” – the real “inventor” of the design. The more we know about our users, the more likely we are to meet their needs.

As the capabilities of interactive applications and the internet go forward and grow, more and more consumers use the applications and the various possibilities in new and different ways. We must think about all aspects of user experience.

And I will ask you once again: Is it just one who is responsible or is it the team which is in charge of UXD-P?
Personally, I believe it is the process of planning and designing for User Experiences (and so I think it’s the team which is in charge), but the overview has to have an experienced planner as a kind of captain.

 

The most common cause of an ineffective website (one that doesn’t deliver value to both the business and its intended constituents) is poor design. The products have to follow, to cover the functions and the experiences. The lack of clear organization, navigation and values of brand and mood mean that people will have an unintentional and maybe bad experience, rather than one that will meet the business’s relationship objectives for each individual. User experience design and planning is a fundamental component to the creation of successful digital products, applications and services.

UXD-P is UXdesign and planning- – In my estimation there are distinctions between Design and Planning.

Design is usually considered in the context of arts and other creative efforts. When I think of design in the UX process it focuses on the needs, wants, and limitations of the end user of the designed goods, but mainly on the visual parts and the mood. A designer has to consider the aesthetic-functional parts and many other aspects of an application or a process.

The planning part provides the framework. The term "planning" describes the formal procedures used in such an endeavors, such as the creation of documents, diagrams etc. to discuss the important issues to be addressed, the objectives to be met, and the strategy to be followed. The planning part is responsible for organizing and structuring to support utility, findability and usability.

I strongly believe that both parts – design and planning – have to work closely together. Every team member should have the ability to think cross-functionally and to anticipate consequences of activities in the whole context.

I’ve often seen timelines like this …

Image_8___

and this doesn´t work for UXdesign and planning …

I give a timeline the preference which looks like this:

Image_9___

… to develop a UXdesign and UXplanning.

And in the center of this team and of this process should stand the leading person – the user!

Image_9___basis points of UXD-P

 

 

 

[1] _ UX honeycomb of Peter Morville

semanticstudios.com-publication

 

 

[2] _ The Sage Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology _ by Carol Sansone, Carolyn C. Morf, A. T. Panter

google-books (The Sage Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology)

amazon.com (The Sage Handbook of Methods in Social Psychology)