The General Stakeholder Interview

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

Topics applicable to most stakeholders

Try to keep the interview conversational rather than reading from a list of questions, but consider writing a list of topics on the inside cover of your notebook where you can glance at them when you get stuck. These are some questions applicable to most stakeholders; topics specific to particular stakeholder roles follow. Note that it’s as important for in-house teams to ask most of these questions as it is for consultants; you may know one answer, but do you know this particular stakeholder’s answer?

What’s your role with respect to this product?

If you’re a consultant, the reason for this question is obvious, but even if you’re an insider, you or one of your teammates may not understand someone’s role as well as you think you do. It’s also an easy, non-threatening way to get the conversation started.

What did you do before this?

Answers to this question will tell you whether this person has some unexpected expertise to share and will give you some clues about how this person might view the world; a product manager who has a background in the domain but not in product management won’t have the same concerns as an experienced product manager who doesn’t know the industry.

What is this product or service supposed to be?

It’s interesting to see what aspects of the product or service each person emphasizes. One of the key things to look for in the response is any hint of functionality no one has mentioned before, since this is important not only in helping the product team achieve consensus, but also in keeping the project timeline within bounds. Some stakeholders will answer you with an impenetrable wall of buzzwords: “It’s a distributed, service-model three-tier architecture that will leverage existing technology,” and so forth. In such cases, ask them to break down what that means by asking how they would explain what it does for the average user.

You’ll also want to ask the reverse of this question: What is the product not meant to be? Some stakeholders have difficulty being realistic about what they can accomplish, so it’s important to build consensus about boundaries as well as goals.

Expect a wide range of answers. With respect to software, this diversity is usually due to what people think will be in the first (or next) version versus what will be in later versions. You may be able to clear things up by asking each interviewee to compare the immediate release to what the product will eventually become.

Who is this product for?

Although the marketing or product management people have the most informative answers to this question, the range of answers from other stakeholders can highlight issues your research will need to address. It’s also important to know what assumptions there are about users so you can test them and see if they’re true.

There may be variation due to a poor understanding of who the users are. On a recent project, for example, one stakeholder told us the product was going to be so indispensable that executive users would want to log in remotely from the airport, while another told us executives would only consume monthly reports generated by subordinates. Both agreed that executives were the targets for the information, but they had differing opinions about whether executives would see the information as so mission-critical that it had to be accessible at all times. This sort of variation doesn’t mean the organization is dysfunctional; it just means people need better user data to clarify things.

When is the version we’re designing going to be released?

It’s normal to hear optimism from the marketing and sales people and pessimism from the engineers, but if the answers to this question differ by more than a month or so, mention it to your project owner. Also, don’t forget to ask why the timeline is what it is. Sometimes there’s a serious mismatch between goals and timeline—stakeholders may say this project is going to be the basis for all of their products in the next ten years, but they want to launch it in just a couple of months. Don’t just let this slide; it will bite you later. Instead, point out the apparent contradiction and ask about it. “You’ve said the product has to be all things to all people. You’ve also said it has to ship by the end of this year. Those two things are potentially conflicting. Which is more important and why?” A reasonable executive stakeholder will clarify what the priorities are.

What worries you about this project? What’s the worst thing that could happen?

This is a good topic for the later part of the interview, after the stakeholder has relaxed a bit. Sometimes the anxieties will be things you can help with, such as worries that the product won’t have the right functionality. In other cases, the worries may point out organizational weaknesses you need to be aware of. While engineers always worry that there won’t be enough time to build the product the way they’d like to (and they’re always right), listen for truly unrealistic expectations. You may hear concerns beyond the usual level of grumbling that one part of the company is not up to doing what it needs to. If you hear that the marketing team is largely inexperienced in the product development world, you may be able to help by educating as you go. If it appears the engineering team is less capable than most, you’ll either need to suggest some additional engineering resources if you’re in a position to do so, or you’ll need to be fairly conservative in your design.

What should this project accomplish for the business?

In a highly functional company, most stakeholders can answer this question to some extent, but it’s amazing how often a senior executive is the only one who can do so. When this happens, you can help the organization by disseminating the business goals during the design process.

If stakeholders struggle with articulating this, try asking more specific questions: How will this product generate revenue? How will this product save money? How should this product affect the company’s brand and position in the marketplace? What should the company be able to accomplish with the product that it hasn’t before?

How will you, personally, define success for this project?

Many stakeholders will simply reiterate the business goal, or they’ll say the thing they’re most worried about won’t happen. Some will give you insight into other things that worry them or what will get them excited about the design. You might hear things like, “If we just avoid this problem we’ve had before, I’ll be happy,” or “Other people in the company will finally see the value my team can offer.” Understanding these issues is essential in building support for the design.

Is there anyone you think we need to speak with who isn’t on our list? Who are those people?

Ask this one toward the end of the interview. Check in with the project owner later to see if discussion with any of the people mentioned is really a good idea.

How would you like to be involved in the rest of the project, and what’s the best way to reach you?

This is a good one to save for last. It’s an especially good opportunity to make sure the senior people stay involved at key decision points. If you have a middle manager who’s reluctant to involve senior management, this gives you room to say “The CEO specifically said she wanted to be involved in that meeting.”

See also

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

The Marketing Stakeholder Interview

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

Marketing stakeholders

Marketing stakeholders (such as marketing executives and most product managers) are usually responsible for promoting the company’s brand, identifying new market opportunities and products that could address them, or both. Most marketing people will immediately view designers as allies who will promote a customer-centric point of view. Some view designers as threatening rather than helpful, though; when you talk about doing research and driving some of the requirements, you may be treading on territory they view as theirs. If they’ve just spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on market research that doesn’t provide the answers you need, you also have the potential to make them look bad. Talk about how the design team’s work is in addition to theirs, not instead of it, and describe how you can help communicate their vision to the engineering team (which is often a point of frustration).

There are a number of questions the marketing people are best equipped to answer; some examples follow. The more brand-focused questions are things a visual or industrial designer will particularly want to know, though the answers can prove useful to the whole team. These questions are in no particular order; they generally fall somewhere in the middle of the questions for all stakeholders listed above.

Who are your customers and users today, and how do you want that to be different in five years?

It’s essential to see where the marketing team wants to take the product or the brand, especially if it involves a change in direction. This will affect how you plan your user and customer interviews, since you won’t want to limit your research to existing customers if the idea is to break into a new industry vertical. (Note that if you’re a consultant planning the research before the project kickoff, the project lead should have asked this question at that time.)

Sometimes the vision is so ambitious that it sounds impossible. For example, the interviewee might paint a very broad picture about handling all types of business communication. This could turn into a monstrous product that attempts to replace phones, email, instant messaging, online conferencing, and more. Try asking what business they definitely don’t want to be in.

Ask for clear timelines. Sometimes, the engineers think the marketers are unrealistic because they talk in very grandiose terms, but don’t always clarify when they want the vision to be fully realized. Often, the marketing folks are talking about a five-year vision and don’t expect the whole thing to be accomplished in the first release a year from now. This is one of many opportunities to help improve communication between groups.

How does this product fit into the overall product strategy?

If the product is part of a bigger suite of related offerings, you need to know what role it plays in that greater plan. For example, if you’re designing the entry-level product in a set and the marketing team envisions getting people to upgrade as their needs change, you know you’ll need to focus on giving that product limited but excellent capabilities and a design that can scale up. If they’re envisioning the product as some sort of platform for future growth, you’ll need some idea what those possible directions are if you’re going to have any chance of anticipating them in the design.

Who are the biggest competitors and what worries you about them? How do you expect to differentiate this product?

While it’s seldom helpful to spend a lot of time on competitive research unless you want to build a “me too” product, you at least need to know what else is out there. Ideally, you will get to interview and observe people using these competitive systems, too. Some people see the competition as the other companies trying to sell similar products, but be sure to discuss the hidden competition, which might even be some combination of paper, telephones, and face-to-face communication.

What three or four qualities do you want people to attribute to your company and your product?

In an established company, good marketing people have a clear answer to this sort of question, and that answer guides everything they do. This answer is essential when your mandate includes developing a unique design language for hardware or software. It can be useful for interaction design, as well; when you are presenting a particular bit of functionality or behavior, describing how it supports the brand values can be a powerful argument. Mind you, this argument works best with very brand-driven organizations, such as consumer product and service companies—in a company that thinks the brand is just the logo, you won’t have much luck with this approach.

In organizations that are less sophisticated about brand, people may struggle with this question. This is where analogies can come in handy. Some people try to get at this information by asking “If your company were a car, what kind of car would it be?” It can sound less silly and be more productive to frame the question in human terms, such as “If your product were a person, how would you describe its qualities?” You might also ask for examples of other brands or products they think embody each attribute, and why.

Note that most larger companies separate product marketing and corporate marketing; the product marketing people may be focused more on understanding their particular segments, leaving the brand issues to the corporate people. If that’s the case, ask this question of the corporate team.

What is the current state of the identity, and could we have a copy of the style guide (if there is one) and examples of it applied to materials?

This question is essential for consultants, but in-house teams probably have this information already. Like the previous question, this is more geared toward corporate marketing than product marketing. In a company that’s sophisticated about marketing, you’ll see consistent visual themes across print and online collateral as well as the visual and industrial design of products; you can look at any Apple product or marketing piece from ten feet away and immediately see that it’s from Apple, for example.

In less sophisticated companies, you may see one style applied to print, another to the Web site, and still another applied to the products (or even worse, no consistent style across any of them). You might also find that the company has a style guide geared almost entirely toward print rather than pixels or hardware. If you’re lucky, the style guide will at least take into account the visual design differences between print and Web design. It’s a rare company, though, that has much of a style guide suited to digital product design, so visual and industrial designers must often interpret the spirit of those guidelines across platforms.

When the style guide doesn’t seem appropriate to what you’re designing, it’s critical to get access to a senior brand stakeholder; a less-senior marketing person dedicated to a product or group often enforces the guidelines without seeing where they should be bent. For example, when my team was designing a phone for one company, the relatively junior marketing person assigned to the product told us it absolutely had to be a certain color and had to contain certain style elements common to the company’s other phones, even though our mandate was total reinvention of the product family. When we were eventually able to get a senior marketing executive involved, he immediately understood why the parameters needed to be varied, so long as the design still conveyed the brand attributes in other ways. This is certainly a tricky situation when you’re an in-house designer; your best option might be to let it go for now, but later try a style treatment that follows the guidelines and one that captures the spirit of the brand even if it breaks the guidelines.

See also

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

The Engineering Stakeholder Interview

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

Engineering stakeholders

Try to speak with engineering management as well as the design engineer(s), if such a role exists; it’s seldom a good idea to involve the entire engineering team at this point. If there are no design engineers, a system architect and GUI lead may be the best option for software expertise. When hardware is required, be sure to involve the electrical and mechanical engineering leads, as well as anyone responsible for manufacturing.

Programmers and engineers may initially be wary of designers. They may have worked with people who called themselves designers, but who proposed horrendously difficult solutions that seemed “cool.” Programmers may feel that designers are stepping on their toes, since some currently design screens themselves. You might also encounter mechanical engineers who view industrial designers as stylists rather than problem-solvers. However, any technical group’s reluctance to give up control over design is usually due to the fact that so far, they’ve been the most competent to do it. It sometimes takes a while, but once they see that good designers can actually do a better job than they can, most engineers are delighted to let go of the design.

The focus and length of engineering interviews differs quite a bit between a new product and a revision of an existing one; in the first case, there is more room for the design to drive the technology, while in the second, the capabilities of the existing technology, when combined with the project budget and timeline, may introduce significant design limitations.

However, don’t ask what you “can” and “can’t” do because in a healthy organization, that will be a business decision and not a technical one—although physics really does limit what you can do with hardware, there’s very little you can’t do with software given sufficient time and budget. Instead, ask what kinds of things would be hard to do and why.

Engineers also tend to relax more when you say you’re not trying to get them to commit to anything at this point, but simply to get a sense of what they already expect may be challenging. The following questions are helpful on most projects, though most projects call for additional, unique questions, too:

What technology decisions have already been made, and what’s driving them?

In the case of a new product, the technology decisions would ideally happen once the design started to take shape, but this is not always the case. When an existing product is being reworked, the technology train may have left the station a long time ago; the software development platform or perhaps several of the electrical components have already been identified. Even decisions that have already been made are sometimes unmade later, though, if the reasons are compelling enough.

For example, one client told us they had already sunk millions of dollars into a particular system as the basis of their development. However, our later research showed that users had needs this system simply couldn’t address. The company’s executives weren’t excited to see those millions go down the drain, but they were glad they’d learned about the issues before throwing away the additional millions they’d planned to spend.

How large is the engineering team assigned to the project, and what are their skills?

This is ideally determined by what the design requires, but in practice there may be a fixed number of people and days allotted to the work. As with technology decisions, though, designers often better serve the business by questioning such parameters than by accepting them. The most important thing to look for is a mismatch between the expectations for the product and the number and skills of the engineers. If you’re designing a big enterprise product and there are only two developers assigned, you’re going to run into trouble.

Likewise, if the software or hardware team has very limited skills, you may need to scale back your design ambitions, though it’s better to find a tactful way to encourage stakeholders to bring in the appropriate expertise if you can. Lack of skilled programmers was an enormous problem at the height of the dot-com boom, when companies hired anyone who’d taken an HTML class and called them software developers; this seems to be less of a problem during “bust” cycles but is likely to crop up any time there is a shortage of talent. I’ve seen similar issues in organizations where mechanical engineers are only accustomed to doing plastic casings and not designing moving parts.

You may wonder how a designer can assess the skills of an engineer. In truth, most designers can’t. However, if you have enough experience working with skilled people and less-skilled people, you’ll learn that certain attitudes and behaviors tend to indicate skill level. If you hear engineers saying that something is impossibly hard when half of your last ten project teams were able to build it, you might start to wonder.

It’s also a bad sign when programmers are anxious about designs they can’t assemble from off-the-shelf libraries; it could mean the timelines are ridiculously short or they’ve seen truly absurd solutions proposed, but sometimes it means they simply don’t know how to build it. The most skilled programmers and engineers get excited about technical challenges, as long as the challenge is there for a good reason and the timeline is reasonably sane.

Could you draw a diagram and tell me in lay terms how the existing system works?

Sometimes this is important information; sometimes it isn’t. You probably won’t know until later whether you need it. Certain system limitations, such as client-side data that’s not always synchronized or response times that are very slow, can make interaction design more challenging. The same is true of hardware systems; if it won’t be possible to change certain kinds of boards or other components, you may not have much room to change the form factor. Just be sure to take this information as food for thought, rather than as something carved in stone.

Note that there’s a reason to ask for an explanation in both visual and lay terms, as shown in Figure 5.2, even if you think you’re well versed in techno-speak—it encourages clarity, and can be another indication of an engineer’s skill level.

Figure 5.2 Example of an engineer’s system diagram.
Figure 5.2 Example of an engineer’s system diagram.

See also:

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

The Sales Stakeholder Interview

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

Sales stakeholders

Sometimes sales and marketing are lumped together in an organization, but most large companies split the two functions. In either case, sales and marketing people tend to have different concerns, so it’s important to include one or more senior members of the sales group as part of the product team. This is true even in companies that ship consumer products, since the distributors or stores to which they sell have their own concerns about things like shelf space.

An enterprise system sales team is often closer to the customers than the marketing team is. In most cases, though, that doesn’t mean they’re closer to end users—IT tools and systems used by small groups of experts are the likeliest exceptions. They may also be more focused on the here and now, since they’re getting evaluated and compensated based on today’s sales, while the marketing group is more focused on the future. Sales people may be among the voices pushing to ship the product right away. However, this is tempered by the fact that sales people get an earful when the customers are unhappy, so it’s not in their best interests to push for shipment of a product that isn’t ready.

A sales person’s biggest worry during design research is that there will be other people spending time with his customers, possibly making a bad impression, promising things he can’t deliver, or saying something that will cause the customer to wait and buy next year’s version instead of next month’s incremental upgrade. It’s important to acknowledge these concerns and to promise that you won’t do any of these things.

Good questions for sales people often focus on what they hear from customers or see at customer sites:

Who is typically involved in the purchase decision?

This question will help you identify all of the right people for design research. For example, a hospital IT department may be the apparent customer for an information system, but you may not realize that the heads of medicine, nursing, the lab, and other departments are very influential.

Why do customers buy a product like this one, and why this one over a competitor’s?

This is good preparation for later interviews with customers. A related but sometimes useful question is, “What one thing could we do to this product that would make sales easier?”

When you lose sales, what are the most common reasons?

People are sometimes puzzled at having a designer ask this kind of question, but it’s helpful in identifying potential product weaknesses. In some cases, though, what customers say is not really what they mean. For example, when people cite a competitor’s user interface as better, sometimes it’s not that the behavior is better, but that the visual design is more attractive. In other cases, the deal is lost because the product lacks important functionality or the workflow is inferior. Naturally, there are also reasons that designers are less able to address, such as poor customer service or shoddy manufacturing, though these are worth pointing out to stakeholders.

What things do customers complain about or ask for most often, and why?

Customers, like stakeholders, may ask for certain solutions without identifying the problem they hope to solve; be sure to ask the sales person why customers are asking for particular things. Sales people often don’t take the time to probe and learn the need behind the feature request, but the answer to this question may hint at some things to look for in customer and user interviews.

See also

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

Interviewing Executives and SME Stakeholders

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

Senior executives

Ideally, there is at least one executive involved who has cross-functional authority and can balance the perspectives of both marketing and engineering; you need this person to make critical decisions, such as what’s worth waiting a little longer for. These are usually the most critical stakeholder interviews, because the way other team members approach product development depends on the views of the people at the top.

It can be difficult to get on a senior executive’s schedule, particularly if the executives regard the product’s design as a secondary concern. If they seem reluctant to spend the time, point out the kinds of strategic decisions that will be made in the course of the design work. However, most executives are more willing to spend this kind of time than people expect.

The concerns of senior executives may include any of the concerns mentioned above for marketing, sales, or engineering, as well as a common concern that they can’t get their subordinates to “see the big picture.”

What do we need to know that you don’t think other members of your team have said?

Senior executives often have a vision or perspective that others in the organization don’t. If they’ve shared that vision much at all, you will have heard it already from multiple people, but some executives communicate about their vision less than they think they do.

We know that both timeline and functionality are important, but if you had to choose one, what would it be?

When there seems to be some controversy about schedule, it’s usually because senior executives are asking to their teams to make omelettes without breaking any eggs. Mention the controversy, then ask what timeline they want you to design for and whether they would rather go to market with an incomplete product or delay shipment to get a product that meets more user needs. (Some designers frame this as “do it fast or do it right,” but it’s best to suspend this kind of judgment; sometimes, doing it “right” means shipping at a certain time to get critical revenue in the door, so tradeoffs have to be made.)

Subject matter experts

If you are working on a consumer product or a business product that involves common work or life activities, you probably won’t need domain experts to help you understand what you see in your research. For products in complex industries, though, subject matter experts (SMEs) are incredibly helpful to have around—so helpful that you might want to hire a consultant to spend a few hours here and there, if there is no expert already on the product team. Even in-house designers with a lot of experience working on certain products can benefit from the perspective of people with deep industry expertise, though they may be able to skip some of the following questions. In-house SMEs are usually part of a product management or professional services group.

A subject matter expert isn’t just someone who was a user (or did a similar job) once upon a time—it’s someone who has broad and deep industry experience and who understands industry best (and worst) practices. If your product overlaps a couple of disciplines, it’s best to have an SME in each; for example, when designing a device that delivers intravenous medication to patients in a hospital, we found it helpful to have the perspectives of both a pharmacy expert, who had a thorough understanding of the drugs, and a nursing expert, who had a thorough understanding of clinical practice.

Beware of getting presumed SMEs who are a little outside their expertise, though—for example, a surgeon who spends his time in the operating room is not an expert in how nurses do their jobs on the hospital ward.

Unless they’ve worked with you before, SMEs will be more concerned than anyone else that you won’t be able to understand their incredibly complex world, since it took them many years to get where they are. They usually wind up surprised at how quickly immersion in the usage environment can educate the design team. However, it’s important to be clear that good research techniques will let you develop a working vocabulary and high-level understanding very quickly, but you will be absolutely reliant on the SMEs for their detailed knowledge.

Spend a couple of hours with SMEs before the user interviews to get some background. Get definitions of terms, ask about best and worst practices, common processes, and regulations. If you’re talking about processes, ask the SME to diagram them on the whiteboard or do this yourself, using your sketches as a discussion tool.

Specific topics will vary by domain, but here are some typical topics to cover with SMEs:

What are the typical demographics and skills of potential users, and how much do these vary?

This information is handy for planning your interview sample, as well as for assessing how typical your actual interviewees seem to be in these respects.

What distinctions in user roles and tasks would you expect us to see?

A SME may be able to tell you about likely differences, such as tasks that vary based on seniority or skill levels that differ with geography. They probably won’t be able to point out all of those factors that make people behave differently, but they should at least be able to give you enough background to help determine how large an interview sample you need.

What sorts of workflows or practices do you think we’ll be seeing in the field?

Some SMEs will describe only the best practices in their industry, while others are very good at pointing out where reality tends to deviate from what people are supposed to do. This kind of discussion is a great way to think about topics you’ll want to explore in user interviews. However, avoid getting into tremendous detail or spending more than an hour or so on this, because you will still want to look at user behavior from a fresh point of view. A certain amount of ignorance helps you ask the naïve questions that can lead to important insights.

Other product team members

In theory, some organizations place QA and support on a par with marketing, sales, and development, but in practice, these organizations seldom have much influence over product direction. However, they may have a variety of useful insights, and at a minimum, they will be able to answer two important questions.

An experienced QA manager can often tell you how solid the engineering team is and can point out process holes that are currently leading to problems. The support or customer service team can tell you where users are most often encountering problems today, whether this is based on tech support calls for software or common failures for hardware—either could mean a flaw in the current design. In some companies, there are other groups that can provide useful information, as well, such as the training staff or technical writers, who may be able to identify where users most often get confused with the current products. Regulatory experts are also indispensable for medical products.

See also

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

A Stakeholder Interview Checklist

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

A Cheat Sheet For Interviewing Stakeholders

If you need a little help in your stakeholder interviews, tape a copy of this summary inside the front cover of your notebook.

Continue reading A Stakeholder Interview Checklist

Project Management for Stakeholder Interviews

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This is an excerpt from from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. It is quite long, so we’ve broken it into several sections. Many thanks to Ms. Goodwin and Wiley for allowing us to share this with our readers.

With good planning, most of your stakeholder interviews should fit within three or four days. Don’t plan on more than six interviews in a day, since they require a lot more energy than most people expect—you have to absorb what people are saying, figure out what the implications are, lead an effective interview, and take thorough notes all at the same time. A quick lunch and the occasional restroom break are essential. Plan on a short break after every couple of interviews to chat with your teammates, if possible. This table shows an example schedule.

Monday Tuesday Wednesday
8:00 Kickoff meeting Simon Parker (European sales)
9:00 Cristina Walker (clinical SME) Nothing scheduled—debrief, review materials
10:30 Ellen Kent and Ed Lieberman (product managers), walk through existing system Maria Torres (QA manager) Marty Long (mechanical engineer) and Jay Adachi (electrical engineer)
11:30 Lunch and debrief
Noon Lunch and debrief Lunch and debrief
12:30 Vijay Gupta (GUI lead) and Adam Matievich (lead architect)
1:00 Anders Haglund (sales VP) Collin Smith (CEO)
2:00 Ron LaFleur (products VP) Cynthia Woo (corporate marketing) Debrief, review schedule with Kate Riley (project owner)
3:00 Debrief Debrief Gunter Vering (professional services)
3:30 Tim Walsh (director of product management) John McIntyre (support manager)
4:00 Robin Sachs (regulatory issues)
4:30 Debrief, review schedule Debrief, review schedule

Try for at least a couple of the most critical stakeholders near the beginning of your schedule. If a few of the others need to be worked in between user interviews, that may not be a problem, but it’s preferable to finish stakeholder discussions first. That way, you’ll be aware of all the assumptions, opinions, and open issues you need to address in the user research.

When You Can’t Interview Stakeholders

The approach outlined above works well when you have an officially sanctioned project with support from the management team. If you don’t, how can you get some of this information? First, consider trying to get some of these meetings anyway; you may be surprised at how willing some executives are to spend time with you if you ask for help. Send them a persuasive, thoughtful email about how what they know could influence the design and how design decisions can affect business issues. Consider giving them a compelling article or short, interesting book on the subject. Seriously, try anything that won’t get you fired, because their involvement is ultimately necessary for the project to succeed. The one thing that won’t work is whining that you’re being excluded—instead, show them something so impressive they’ll see the value of including you for themselves.

If you simply cannot get access to the right people, see if you can get access to relevant documents they’ve created—white papers, memos, presentations, or whatever you can find. Build relationships with people in their departments so you can at least get indirect information. Above all, don’t give up—keep looking for opportunities to get them involved. Otherwise, they may very well involve themselves later, often with unfortunate results.


Goal-Directed design isn’t just about accomplishing user goals; a product or service that doesn’t also accomplish a business goal is a failure. Never shortchange your stakeholder research, even if it means compressing your time with potential users. Always:

  • Identify the full range of stakeholders and meet with each
  • Take advantage of the expertise that’s available
  • Learn about hopes, fears, beliefs, and goals
  • Avoid taking assumptions at face value
  • Remember that you’re not just asking questions—you’re also building essential relationships

Once you have a solid understanding of the business, you’re ready to move on to research with potential customers and users.

See Also:

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.

Understanding the Business

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Boxes and Arrows is delighted to share this excerpt from Kim Goodwin’s excellent Designing for the Digital Age. When I recently taught a class on user experience design, I found few good resources on gathering business requirements. I was so happy when I cracked open Kim’s book and found exactly what my students needed. And thanks to her generosity, and Wiley’s, we are able to reprint the chapter in its entirety.
~Christina Wodtke, January 2013

Understanding the Business

While we designers like to think of ourselves as advocating for end users, we’re ultimately responsible for helping our customers: the employers or clients who hire us to help achieve certain organizational goals. This means every project should begin with understanding what the product or service is meant to accomplish. Is it primarily intended to build brand equity, reduce operational costs, or generate revenue? Blue-sky design won’t be helpful if the tool is only meant to save the company $100,000 a year but may be just the thing if it has the potential to bring in tens of millions.

Why is the project important? What’s driving the launch timeline? How ambitious a design is the organization capable of digesting? If you’d like to see your design make it out into the world instead of gathering dust on your shelf, these questions and many others about the business should be your point of departure.

Understanding the business starts with stakeholder interviews. As discussed in Chapter 2, stakeholders are the people in your organization (or your client’s organization, if you’re an outside consultant) who fund, build, test, market, sell, and support the product, plus anyone else who will influence the product’s direction. Who these people are varies from company to company, but the most influential are usually a product marketing or product management executive, the technical lead, and—in an ideal world—an executive to whom both of those people report. Sales people are as influential as marketing in some cases, less so in others. Enterprise software companies often have influential professional services organizations (people responsible for customization and implementation at customer sites).

You may also need to include someone from corporate marketing to discuss brand ideals and interpretation of the identity in the product. Subject matter experts may be stakeholders, also. In most companies, QA and support have very little authority or influence, but they often have useful information (and it’s always helpful to be on their good side, anyway). Don’t forget to account for other influencers, such as a consultant who has the CEO’s ear or a long-time employee who is not in a management role but is an opinion leader. Table 5.1 lists these stakeholders and the information they can offer.

Table 5.1 Typical stakeholders to interview

Role Typical titles What they know about
Product marketing lead Product manager, product marketing manager, program manager, director or manager of online marketing (for Web sites) Business case, mandate for the product or service, customer characteristics
Technical lead Director of engineering or R&D, architect Existing technical parameters, capabilities of the engineering team
Executive In large companies, a director or VP of products or marketing (for Web sites) In small or single-product companies, a CEO Any of the above, plus a perspective that hopefully balances objectives (marketing) and capabilities (engineering)
Sales VP or director of sales Customers
Brand steward Founder or CEO in small companies, director or VP of corporate marketing or brand strategy in larger ones What the brand means and how it’s evolving, where brand guidelines can be bent
Subject matter expert Usually found in the product marketing or product management group Domain, users (to some extent)
QA Manager or director of QA Another perspective on engineering skill level
Support Technical support or customer service manager Most common problems people have with the product
Professional services Manager or director of professional services or consulting Domain, customers, users (to some extent)
Other influencers Variable; typically consultants or long-time employees Variable

It’s crucial for the design team to establish relationships with these stakeholders as early as possible. Some of these are the people with the initial vision for the product, which will obviously drive what you do. Others may not be decision-makers, but can get you off on the right foot when it comes to the business issues, the domain, and sometimes even the political landscape (“You should probably know that Jim’s hot button is….”).

Early interviews are also an opportunity—sometimes your only opportunity—to build credibility and establish a line of communication with the stakeholders. It’s possible they’re still thinking of the design team as the people who will make the product pretty or fill the “easy to use” checkbox on the requirements list. By engaging the stakeholders at the right level, you can demonstrate that your work will be of far more than cosmetic value.

Identifying Stakeholders and Scheduling Interviews

If you’re an insider, you may already have a good idea who the influential stakeholders are. You may also think interviewing them is not necessary, but avoid this trap; hearing that executive’s point of view filtered through middle management isn’t the same as hearing her thoughts in her own words. If you’re a consultant, ask for your designated project owner’s help in identifying stakeholders. Give that person the list of roles that are usually important to involve; then advise him to include anyone else who has information you might need or whose opinion has the potential to derail the project later.

The number of stakeholder interviews varies quite a bit from company to company; a small startup may only have two or three, whereas a large corporation might have 50 stakeholders for a highly visible, political project, such as an intranet or corporate Web site.

In reality, you’re not likely to have 50 people who have significant influence on the direction of the project, but some organizations don’t do a good job of distinguishing between interest in the project and influence over its direction. If you don’t have time to interview them all, prioritize individual meetings with the decision-makers, top influencers, and people who have vital information, then conduct a brief group session with the rest.

Prioritize individual meetings with decision-makers, top influencers, and people who have vital information.

Conduct stakeholder interviews in person when possible; it’s easier to develop a rapport when you’re face-to-face. Also, it gives stakeholders a chance to assess your credibility and good will, which are important to establish early on.

Try to speak with stakeholders individually. When it’s necessary to group a few stakeholders together, keep them grouped by role (e.g., talk with several engineers and then several salespeople, but don’t mix the engineers and sales people). You need to hear about who is frustrated with whom and what the range of viewpoints is.

When scheduling stakeholder interviews, plan on having the whole design team attend, since every one of these discussions is likely to contain vital information. Allow for about an hour with most stakeholders, sometimes two hours with a technical lead or subject matter expert. Also plan on longer interviews if you and the stakeholder are not fluent in the same language; you will at least experience some long pauses as you both think through your communication, even if you don’t require a translator. Ask the stakeholders ahead of time to gather any white papers, specifications, or other information you think might be useful. The following sample invitation provides an example request for stakeholder participation.

Example of an invitation to stakeholders
As you may know, my colleagues and I are responsible for the product’s design. We understand that you are ultimately responsible for marketing Product X. We’d like to schedule a one-hour meeting with you next week to discuss the project. We’ll ask questions about your vision, goals, and concerns, as well as the role you expect to play in the project. We’d like to take advantage of your expertise, too, so we’ll have plenty of questions about XCorp and the industry. We would also appreciate it if you could share any useful documents, such as MRDs, white papers, or competitive product information.

Within your team, outline the key topics you want to cover with each stakeholder. After each team member has done several projects, you’ll find that preparation is minimal, since the information you need from each sort of stakeholder is fairly consistent from one project to another.

Beware invisible executives. A friend of mine calls them “torpedoes”—previously unseen stakeholders who can sneak up at high speed and blow the project out of the water. The product manager may seem to have total authority, but that’s only true as long as the CEO or other senior manager agrees with the project’s direction. If an executive sees something he doesn’t like or understand, the project could experience a 180° turn at any point.

Identifying the final authority can be difficult; the project owner is often oblivious to the potential for executive intervention. Listen closely in stakeholder interviews to identify likely issues. For example, “We tried to go that direction, but Dan hated it,” should prompt you to ask, “Who’s Dan? I haven’t heard his name before….” Another option is to ask each stakeholder you interview if there are any key influencers not already on your list.

Once you have identified these people, it can still be tricky to get the project owner to let you talk with them. I use examples from past projects to make my case.

On the negative side, I describe a couple of projects in which senior executives who were excluded for months disliked the final design because they hadn’t been part of the thought process that got us there. In one case, we smoothed things out within a few days, but the other took several months of comparative usability testing before we could move on.

On the positive side, I describe another project in which the client’s internal project team had shown idea after idea to an executive, only to have him reject every one of them. As a result, they tried to “protect” our design team by excluding that executive from our interview list. We insisted on doing something the internal team hadn’t done: we spent an hour asking him about his concerns, objectives, and ideas. It didn’t take long to understand why he had rejected the earlier designs. When we later presented our initial concept, he said, “That’s what I was looking for!” If we had not understood his concern, we might have gone down exactly the path he didn’t want to see.

Officially “Kicking Off” the Project

For some reason, the business world is rife with military and sports-related language: deploy a product, kick off a project, employ tactics…perhaps it’s because in business, just as in sports and the military, we have to rally the troops and get everyone on the same page of the playbook? Regardless of what we call it or why, an official project kickoff meeting is useful for several reasons. It:

  1. Draws everyone’s attention to what may be a major effort.
  2. Sets expectations about how much of their time will be required and when.
  3. Gets all of the key stakeholders in the same room at the same time to discuss goals, deliverables, assumptions, and timelines.
  4. Exposes the whole team directly to the executives’ vision, often for the first time.

Depending on how familiar the project is and how large the team is, a kickoff meeting will take anywhere from one to two and a half hours. After introductions, start by re-capping your understanding of the project’s goals and parameters, then walk everyone through the project plan and a high-level overview of the method. Often, there are multiple people in the room who weren’t involved with defining the project’s parameters (or the decision to hire a consultant, if you are one), so chances are this is information they need. Highlight the dates of critical meetings (such as the presentation of findings, personas, and requirements, as well as the design framework discussion) and ask everyone to reserve them, since you’ll need a full complement of stakeholders involved at each key decision point. See Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1 Example of a project schedule overview from a kickoff meeting.

The research plan might engender controversy if it’s already been determined. Hopefully, the most knowledgeable stakeholders have had a hand in its creation, but in most organizations, everyone has an opinion. Make a note of any suggested additions or changes to the plan, then check in later with your project owner to determine what, if anything, you should do about them.

Whenever possible, have a group discussion centered on a few basic stakeholder questions. This is easier with some groups than with others. In a small group of stakeholders who are comfortable with one another, a simple facilitated discussion can be very effective. A group that’s large or very conscious of what the most senior person in the room thinks may call for more elaborate facilitation tools.

Write several essential questions on large sheets of paper and tape them to the walls, then give everyone a pen and some sticky notes to use in responding to the questions. Any of the questions from later in this chapter might be useful, but good starting points include:

  1. What is the product?
  2. Who will use it?
  3. What do users need?
  4. What customers and users are most important?
  5. What challenges do we face?

You can get creative with this and use different colors to distinguish hopes from concerns or facts from hypotheses, but don’t make the color coding so elaborate that people have to think much about it. Once you’ve gathered everyone’s thoughts, walk through them with the group, pointing out where there seems to be consensus. Use contrasting points of view as a basis for discussion with the large group, then pursue those topics further during the individual discussions.

Once the kickoff meeting is done, you’ll proceed into stakeholder discussions. It’s ideal to start with one or more of the executives primarily responsible for the vision, followed by several other stakeholders. Consider saving your project owner or one of the primary vision-keepers until the end, since that provides a good opportunity for clarification if you’ve heard a wide range of responses.

Conducting Stakeholder Interviews

Have one team member lead the discussion so the stakeholder doesn’t feel overwhelmed. All design team members should take notes, though one person should be designated as the primary note taker. This is usually one of the interaction designers, since these two people attend all of the interviews. When the stakeholder is primarily concerned with brand or physical hardware as opposed to product definition or software, the visual designer or industrial designer should lead the discussion. Team members who aren’t driving the interview should, at a minimum, have a chance to ask a few questions before the primary interviewer changes topics, as well as at the end of the interview.

Getting started

Hopefully, each stakeholder has attended the project kickoff meeting and is already acquainted with the basic goals and timeline of the project; if not, that’s a good place to start the discussion after everyone has been introduced. Before you start asking questions, talk about the way you’ll be approaching the interview. One essential disclaimer is something like, “We’re going to ask some deliberately naive questions. That doesn’t mean we haven’t done our homework—just that we want to hear your point of view.” Without this disclaimer, I’ve seen stakeholders go back to the project owner and ask why they hired such dumb designers who clearly know nothing about the business.

You might also reassure interviewees that you won’t quote them to anyone else, although you are obliged to tell the project owner in general terms when you hear significant disagreements. This kind of anonymity is something an outside consultant can insist upon, but is harder to manage if you’re an insider.

Things to watch out for

When it comes to design, everyone has opinions. You absolutely need to hear these ideas from stakeholders for a couple of reasons; first, there may be value in them, and second, telling the CEO you don’t want to hear her design ideas is unlikely to help your career. Of course, you also need to know what everyone’s pet ideas are so you can explain later why you didn’t take that direction with the design.

However, don’t take these assertions at face value—if the stakeholders had the design problem solved, you wouldn’t be there. Keep in mind that some people—especially busy executives—communicate by proposing solutions when what they really mean is, “I see a problem and I want you to fix it.”

One of my clients had a running joke about how an executive would see an idea for the hardware design, sigh, flip open his cell phone, and tell them to make the large, complex device more like the phone. The whole team was frustrated because their complex medical device didn’t have much in common with a cell phone, and the executive was frustrated because his team wasn’t getting it.

What he really meant was that they weren’t exploring any ideas with hinges or moving parts, which would allow the bulky device to take up less space when not in use (resolving a common customer complaint with the existing device). The moral of the story is this: When you hear someone propose a specific solution, listen to the proposal, then ask what problem that solution is meant to solve.

You may also hear long lists of constraints, musts, and deadlines, not all of which are as real as people believe them to be. Always ask why the stakeholder believes an assumption to be true. One of the more common assertions is that the product has to be browser-based—in 2001, I think I heard that on every project I did; today, people seem to be a little less thrilled with the idea, but it still comes up. This belief exists either because the customers are asking for it (and no one has asked the customers why they want it) or to avoid the need for individual workstation installation, which can be addressed in other ways.

Deadlines are another good example. Although some deadlines are driven by external forces, such as the need to show something new at a critical industry event, others are arbitrary targets the management team sets because they’re afraid of the product that never ships. If you know what’s driving a deadline, you’ll know whether it might be flexible.

The other thing to look for in stakeholder interviews is points of difference. In a perfect organization (if there is such a thing), all the stakeholders will say much the same things about the product, the customers, and the timeline, but some variation in views is normal. Pay attention to any extreme differences, as these represent both risks and opportunities. The risk is that such divergent perspectives could cause headaches in your future or derail the project entirely. The opportunity lies in using your later research data to help resolve those issues.

These are all the section in the chapter. We hope you’ll enjoy!

Excerpted with permission from the publisher, Wiley, from Designing for the Digital Age: How to Create Human-Centered Products and Services by Kim Goodwin. Copyright (c) 2009.